Mitochondrial DNA damage and vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

Prior studies demonstrate mitochondrial dysfunction with increased reactive oxygen species generation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress-mediated damage to mitochondri...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research

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This study showed that potential vicious cycles underlying ARDs are quite diverse and unique, triggered by diverse and unique factors that do not usually progress with age, thus casting doubts on the possibility of discovering the single molecular cause of aging and developing the single anti-aging pill. Rather, each disease appears to require an individual approach. However, it still cannot be excluded that some or all of these cycles are triggered by fundamental processes of aging, such as chronic inflammation or accumulation of senescent cells. Nevertheless, experimental data showing clear cause and effect relationships...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
The role of oxidized lipids in aging is often studied in the context of comparative biology, comparing different species with divergent life spans in order to try to identify the properties of cellular metabolism that are most influential on life span. It appears that the degree to which lipids are resistant to oxidative reactions is an important factor, and this has given rise to the membrane pacemaker hypothesis. There is something in mitochondrial function and resilience of lipids in mitochondrial membranes to forms of damage that is important in life span, at least at the scale of differences between species. Do lipid ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Abstract Metformin, as a dimethyl biguanide prescribed as the first-line medication for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, is one of the most frequently used drugs, worldwide. However, the beneficial effects of metformin are not limited to insulin sensitizing and blood glucose lowering effects as recent clinical trials deciphered lower cancer risk in metformin users. In addition, metformin protected the liver against chemical or viral hepatotoxicants through various mechanisms including activation of AMPK via inhibition of mitochondrial complex I, inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and inhib...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
ConclusionsIGF ‐1 was inversely correlated with liver fibrosis markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without obvious alcoholic consumption. Measuring serum IGF‐1 levels might help clinicians to identify type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with advanced non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Authors: Kamiya A, Hara T, Tsuda M, Tsuru E, Kuroda Y, Ota U, Karashima T, Fukuhara H, Inoue K, Ishizuka M, Nakajima M, Tanaka T Abstract 5-Aminolevulinic acid, a natural amino acid, activates mitochondrial respiration and induces heme oxygenase-1 expression. Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with age-related mitochondrial respiration defect, oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid with sodium ferrous citrate on early renal damage and hepatic steatosis. 7-Month-old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standard diet or high fat diet fo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Tags: J Clin Biochem Nutr Source Type: research
Abstract Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), which occurs in 1/50000 live births, is the most prevalent inherited neuromuscular disorder. Nearly all FRDA patients develop cardiomyopathy at some point in their lives. The clinical manifestations of FRDA include ataxia of the limbs and trunk, dysarthria, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac diseases. However, the broad clinical spectrum makes FRDA difficult to identify. The diagnosis of FRDA is based on the presence of suspicious clinical factors, the use of the Harding criteria and, more recently, the use of genetic testing for identifying the expansion of a triplet nucleotide se...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Vascular disease, inflammation and impaired brain insulin signaling might occur in T2D and contribute to dementia risk. Evidence from epidemiological studies has not consistently reported associations that could integrate a unified mechanism of disease in humans. Evaluation of the effect of antidiabetic medications and non-pharmacological interventions in dementia prevention in type 2 diabetes is promising but has thus far offered inconsistent results. PMID: 30648514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Diabetes Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Curr Diabetes Rev Source Type: research
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a systemic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and organismic insulin resistance. This pathologic shift in both circulating fuel levels and in energy substrate utilization by central and peripheral tissues contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction across organ systems. The mitochondrion lies at the intersection of critical cellular pathways such as energy substrate metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptosis. It is the disequilibrium of these processes in T2DM that results in downstream deficits in vital functions including hepa...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
ConclusionsInsulin ‐like growth factor‐I was inversely correlated with liver fibrosis markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without obvious alcoholic consumption. Measuring serum insulin‐like growth factor‐I levels might help clinicians to identify T2DM patients with advanced NASH.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Abstract The world's population continues to age at a rapid pace. By the year 2050, individuals over the age of 65 will account for sixteen percent of the world's population and life expectancy will increase well over eighty years of age. Accompanied with the aging of the global population is a significant rise in non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Neurodegenerative disorders will form a significant component for NCDs. Currently, dementia is the 7th leading cause of death and can be the result of multiple causes that include diabetes mellitus, vascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD may represent at leas...
Source: Current Neurovascular Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Curr Neurovasc Res Source Type: research
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