Mitochondrial DNA damage and vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

Prior studies demonstrate mitochondrial dysfunction with increased reactive oxygen species generation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress-mediated damage to mitochondri...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research

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Authors: Nakabeppu Y Abstract Accumulating clinical data indicates that insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus (DM) are major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the exact mechanisms on how insulin resistance and DM act as risk factors for AD remain unclear. Recent progress in gene expression profiling of AD brains revealed that brain insulin production and insulin signaling are significantly impaired, indicating that AD brain exhibits a feature of brain diabetes with depletion of brain insulin, which causes mitochondrial dysfunction with increased oxidative stress, thereby increasing sensitivity ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Miren Ettcheto, Amanda Cano, Oriol Busquets, Patricia Regina Manzine, Elena Sánchez-López, Rubén D. Castro-Torres, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Ester Verdaguer, María Luisa García, Jordi Olloquequi, Carme Auladell, Jaume Folch, Antoni CaminsAbstractAfter decades of research, the molecular neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is still one of the hot topics in biomedical sciences. Some studies suggest that soluble amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers act as causative agents in the development of AD and ...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Childhood obesity is one of the major health problems in western countries. The excessive accumulation of adipose tissue causes inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunctions. Thus, obesity leads to the development of severe co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes mellitus, liver steatosis, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases which can develop early in life. Furthermore, obese children have low bone mineral density and a greater risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The knowledge about the interplay bone tissue and between adipose is still growing, although recent findings suggest that ad...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusions Two, Not Mutually Exclusive, Hypotheses We have reviewed and organized the literature with the intent of showing the existing parallels between excessive fat accumulation and the aging process. We have categorized these reports following what have been proposed to be the nine hallmarks of aging (21) (Figure 1). Based on the evidence, two distinct hypotheses can be proposed. One is that the cellular responses provoked by an excess of nutrients cause obesity, and that obesity is responsible for accelerating the pace of aging. Supporting this hypothesis are the observations that knocking out the fat-specific ins...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Dominique E. Martin1,2, Amanda K. Jones1,3, Sambhu M. Pillai1,4, Maria L. Hoffman1,5, Katelyn K. McFadden1,6, Steven A. Zinn1, Kristen E. Govoni1 and Sarah A. Reed1* 1Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States 2Department of Psychology, Providence College, Providence, RI, United States 3Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Aurora, CO, United States 4School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, United States 5Department of Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, United St...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: 3T3-L1 cells, treated with LPV/RTV, show altered lipid content due to increased miRNA-218 levels, which affects lipin-1 mRNA. Moreover, increased miRNA-218 levels were inversely correlated with changes in GLUT-4 expression, which suggests a role for miRNA-218 in mediating the insulin resistance consequent to cART. Introduction Metabolic syndrome is a serious consequence of combined Antiretroviral Therapy (cART). HIV-associated metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by lipodystrophy (LS), the redistribution of body fat with loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue in face, limbs and buttocks, concomitant wit...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Crohn’s Disease in Clinical Remission Is Marked by Systemic Oxidative Stress Arno R. Bourgonje1, Julius Z. H. von Martels1, Marian L. C. Bulthuis2, Marco van Londen3, Klaas Nico Faber1, Gerard Dijkstra1† and Harry van Goor2*† 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands 2Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Gro...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, TSF improved lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis by inducing the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway-mediated autophagy. Introduction Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a worldwide health concern due to the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes. In addition, NAFLD is closely associated with the risk factors of coronary heart disease, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, which are considered to be the leading causes of death (Wiest et al., 2017). Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of NAFLD has significantly improved, there is still no effective medica...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
We examined the effects of the independent and combined effects of Zataria Multiflora supplementation and circuit resistance training (CRT) on selected adipokines among postmenopausal women. Forty-eight postmenopausal women were divided into four groups: Exercise (EG, n = 12), Zataria Multiflora (ZMG, n = 12), exercise and Zataria Multiflora (ZMEG, n = 12), and control (CG, n = 12). Participants in experimental groups either performed CRT (3 sessions per week with intensity at 55% of one-repetition maximum) or supplemented with Zataria Multiflora (500 mg every day after breakfast with 100 ml of water), or their combination...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusion The elucidation of the function of circRNAs is an emerging field of science with a tremendous potential after previously being dismissed as RNA artifacts. They are ubiquitously expressed and thousands of members have already been identified. This fact only expands their potential to possibly enhance our knowledge to understand the difference between health and disease. Owing to their structure stability and their presence in exosomes circRNAs may also exert their function in an autocrine, paracrine and possible endocrine fashion. In addition, the fact that circRNAs are widely distributed in the cellular compart...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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