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The inconvenient truth of vaccine refusal

Follow me at @drClaire When I talk to parents who are hesitant about vaccines, what they most want to talk to me about are possible side effects of the vaccine. They worry about everything from fevers and soreness to additives to possible links to autism. They rarely worry about the diseases that vaccines prevent—and that’s what worries me most of all. It is the inconvenient truth of vaccine refusal: when you don’t get vaccinated against an illness, you are more likely to catch it. A study just released in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) makes this very clear. Researchers looked at information about recent measles and pertussis outbreaks. They found that unvaccinated people made up the majority of those who caught measles and a large proportion of those who caught pertussis (waning immunity from the pertussis vaccine plays a role in those outbreaks). Some weren’t old enough to be vaccinated—but of those who were old enough, most came from families who had chosen not to vaccinate. We developed vaccines for a reason: to stop children from getting sick and dying. This was not a money-making stunt by drug companies, as some claim. Here in the United States, vaccines have done such a great job that we have literally forgotten about the ravages of measles, polio, pertussis, diphtheria, and the many other illnesses that we can now prevent. They truly were ravages. Who even remembers diphtheria? Between 1936 and 1945, there were ab...
Source: New Harvard Health Information - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Children's Health Infectious diseases Parenting Prevention Vaccines Source Type: news

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Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and are poised to capture antigen, migrate to draining lymphoid organs, and postmaturation process. Recent evidences have suggested that tumor microenvironment has an effect on DCs by inactivating various components of the immune system responsible for tumor clearance, eventually leading to tumorigenesis. This inactivation is owed to the epigenetic modifications [ie, microRNA (miRNA)] at the posttranscriptional level, thus regulating the differentiation patterns and functional behavior of DCs. Thus, need of the hour is to develop protoco...
Source: Journal of Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
The chemokine MIP3α (CCL20) binds to CCR6 on immature dendritic cells. Vaccines fusing MIP3α to gp100 have been shown to be effective in therapeutically reducing melanoma tumor burden and prolonging survival in a mouse model. Other studies have provided evidence that interleukin-10 (IL-10) neutralizing antibodies (αIL-10) enhance immunologic melanoma therapies by modulating the tolerogenic tumor microenvironment. In the current study, we have utilized the B16F10 syngeneic mouse melanoma model to demonstrate for the first time that a therapy neutralizing IL-10 enhances the antitumor efficacy of a MIP3&alph...
Source: Journal of Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Basic Studies Source Type: research
In this study, after confirmation that patients’ NK cells were not impaired in their cytotoxic activity, evaluated against long-term tumor cell lines, we evaluated their interactions with autologous mCRC cells. Molecular and phenotypical evaluation of mCRC cells, expanded in vitro from liver metastasis, showed that they expressed high levels of polio virus receptor and Nectin-2, whereas UL16-binding proteins were less expressed in all tumor samples evaluated. Two different patterns of MICA/B and HLA class I expression on the membrane of mCRC were documented; approximately half of mCRC patients expressed high levels o...
Source: Journal of Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Basic Studies Source Type: research
In conclusion, we demonstrated that this 5-peptide vaccine was tolerable, and that FOXM1 and MELK could be promising targets for immunotherapy in patients with cervical cancer.
Source: Journal of Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Clinical Studies Source Type: research
Conclusion Pacific Islanders referred to TAMC present with a disproportionally higher rate of regional and advanced disease. Significantly, only 28% of invasive cervical cancers in the Pacific Island population sampled could have been potentially be prevented using the available quadrivalent vaccine targeting HPV 16/18; however, 88% could be covered by the recently licensed nonavalent vaccine.
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Publication date: 21 April 2018 Source:New Scientist, Volume 238, Issue 3174
Source: New Scientist - Category: Science Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, animal carcasses from the two abattoirs (HT1 and HT2) in the formal meat sector (FMS) and slaughter points in the informal meat sector (INMS) were examined at two stages of slaughter (before washing and after washing) for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and total viable count (TCC), as well as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus count. At each stage, carcasses were sampled by swabbing at the neck, brisket, flank, and rump. ACC for beef, mutton, and pork carcasses at HT1 and HT2 before washing were between 2.5–5.8, 2.2–4.7, and 2.7–3.7 mean log CFU/cm2, respectively, and TCC c...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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