I Am My Mother's Chimera. Chances Are, So Are You.
For years the concept of a "genetic chimera" -- an individual with two genetically distinct cells lines in his/her body -- has sparked the imagination of writers: from Stephen King to Michael Crichton, from CSI to The Office. The idea that an individual could harbor his/her own twin is creepy and intriguing at the same time. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have allowed us to probe much deeper into a person's genome, to the point that today scientists believe that chimerism could be far more common than what we originally thought. Chances are, you could be your own twin. But how surprised would you be if I told you that you are actually far more likely to be your mother's chimera than your unborn sibling's? Before the 1960s, it was believed that the placenta was a perfect barrier between mother and fetus, and no blood or cells could trespass it in either direction. Today we know that there's actually a two-way exchange of cells between mother and fetus during pregnancy. What's even more surprising is that these "extraneous" cells outlast the duration of the pregnancy and can in fact be found in the child and/or the mother years after birth. Male DNA has been found in women years after they had given birth to their sons. In fact, fetal cells are released in high quantities during spontaneous abortions, hence can be found even in women who have never delivered, so long as at some point in their lives they became pregnant. Conversely, maternal...
Authors: Alanazy MH, Barakeh RB, Asiri A, Edrees MF, Abuzinadah AR, Aljafen BN, Muayqil T Abstract Only a small fraction of patients with acute ischemic stroke receive intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We sought to assess barriers and practice patterns in using IVT for acute ischemic stroke among neurologists in Saudi Arabia. An electronic survey was sent to all neurologists registered with the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties. A total of 148 (77.5%) neurologists responded. The most common reported barriers for IVT administration were delayed presentation to hospitals (82.4%) and unclear time of symptom onset ...
Conclusion: This paper addresses the clinical implications of performing numerous CT examinations in patients with cancer, providing clinicians with information regarding methods to reduce risk factors in this patient population.Blood Purif 2018;46:56 –69
Conclusions: RDLs are frequently observed in high-risk patients for gastric cancer after eradication. M-NBI demonstrated significantly superior diagnostic efficacy with respect to RDL.Digestion 2018;98:48 –55
Oil Palm Phenolics Inhibit the In Vitro Aggregation of β-Amyloid Peptide into Oligomeric Complexes. Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2018;2018:7608038 Authors: Weinberg RP, Koledova VV, Shin H, Park JH, Tan YA, Sinskey AJ, Sambanthamurthi R, Rha C Abstract Alzheimer's disease is a severe neurodegenerative disease characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) into toxic oligomers which activate microglia and astrocytes causing acute neuroinflammation. Multiple studies show that the soluble oligomers of Aβ42 are neurotoxic and proinflammatory, whereas the monomers and insoluble fibr...
This study showed that ESE-16 exposure leads to the aggregation of acidic vesicles, identified as lysosomes, not accompanied by an induction of autophagy. Therefore, ESE-16 disrupts normal endocytic vesicle maturation likely through the inhibition of the microtubule function.Pharmacology 2018;102:9 –16
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of tolerance against nuclear autoantigens in which the production of autoantibodies leads to tissue damages through the formation and deposition of immune complexes. Recent genome-wide association studies of SLE patients have revealed that polymorphisms of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 7 and IRF8 are associated with an increased risk of SLE but the precise role of these IRFs in SLE development is not fully understood.
While environmental factors are critical for the development of autoimmunity, the inciting agents that trigger autoantibody formation remain elusive. We previously reported that autoantibodies in subjects with endemic pemphigus foliaceus likely arise from immune responses against a cross-reactive sand fly antigen. Here, we have investigated the potential role of environmental antigens in triggering autoantibody development in patients with the non-endemic autoimmune skin disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV).
Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that viral-based immunotherapy has the potential to overcome resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and to fill the unmet needs of many cancer patients. Poxviruses, such as modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), have the potential as cancer immunotherapeutic agents. We recently showed that intratumoral (IT) delivery of inactivated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (iMVA) induces antitumor systemic immunity via the STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and Batf3 –dependent CD103+/CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs).
Class switch recombination (CSR) is crucial for humoral immunity but its regulation has not been fully clarified. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune bullous disease caused by anti-desmoglein (Dsg) 3 IgG. We previously revealed that anti-Dsg3 IgM couldn ’t induce acantholysis, suggesting that CSR from IgM to IgG is a key event for PV onset. The purpose of this study is to elucidate how CSR of anti-Dsg3 antibody (Ab) is regulated using mouse model. First, we generated the pathogenic anti-Dsg3 Ab, AK23, knock-in (KI) mice in which CSR of KI Ab can occur.
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies to type XVII collagen (COL17). Currently, systemic corticosteroids are used as first-line treatments for BP; alternatively, intravenous administration of high-dose IgG (IVIG) has been shown to be effective for patients with steroid-resistant BP in clinical practice. However, the effect of IVIG on BP has not fully been investigated. To examine the effects and mechanisms of action of IVIG against BP we performed IVIG experiments using two experimental BP mouse models.
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