MHC class I chain-related molecule A and B expression is upregulated by cisplatin and associated with good prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

Abstract MHC class I chain-related molecule A and B (MICA/B) are NK group 2 member D (NKG2D) ligands, which are broadly expressed in transformed cells. Both DNA damage-induced ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATM and Rad3-related protein kinases (ATM–ATR) signaling and oncogene-induced PI3K–AKT signaling regulate the expression of NKG2D ligands, which promote NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity via NKG2D–NKG2D ligand interactions. NKG2D ligand overexpression was recently reported to be correlated with good prognosis in several types of cancer. However, the prognostic significance of NKG2D ligands in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. Here, MICA/B expression was evaluated based on immunohistochemistry of 91 NSCLC samples from patients following radical surgery. In addition, expression of MICA/B was assessed in NSCLC cell lines treated with cisplatin in order to evaluate the regulatory mechanisms of MICA/B expression. Overall, 28 out of 91 (30.8 %) specimens showed high expression level of MICA/B, which was associated with low 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and manifestation of adenocarcinoma. After a median follow-up of 48.2 months, high MICA/B expression was associated with good recurrence-free survival (p = 0.037). In vitro assays using cell lines revealed that MICA/B expression was upregulated by cisplatin via ATM–ATR signaling, resulting in enhanced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Upregulated MICA/B exp...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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In conclusion, this study elucidated that combination of cisplatin and XAV-939 exerted cytotoxic and genotoxic effect to abrogate CSC mediated chemoresistance in HNSCC in synergistic manner.
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Revista Clínica Española (English Edition)Author(s): J. Masip, J.R. Germà LluchAbstractRecent epidemiological studies have shown that alcohol consumption can increase the risk of arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation and gastrointestinal and breast cancer. Various sectors are therefore promoting abstinence from alcohol. However, light alcohol consumption has once again been shown to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and diabetes but with an unclear effect on cerebrovascular disease. The decision to consume alcohol should therefore be ...
Source: Revista Clinica Espanola - Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Surgery (Oxford)Author(s): Tim LaneAbstractUpper tract transitional cell carcinoma is a lethal disease with half the patients dead within 5 years of diagnosis. Unlike urothelial tumours arising in the bladder, the disease is more likely to be invasive at the time of diagnosis and in part reflects the poorer prognosis. It is a biologically aggressive disease with a high chance of recurrence even after local control. Diagnosis is made by a combination of upper tract imaging, urine cytology and ureteroscopic biopsy. Organ-confined disease is amenable to radical surgery,...
Source: Surgery (Oxford) - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
This article aims to summarize the current knowledge of prostate cancer and treatment options available.
Source: Surgery (Oxford) - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Surgery (Oxford)Author(s): Jameel Mushtaq, Ramesh Thurairaja, Rajesh NairAbstractUrothelial carcinoma of the bladder is the most common malignancy affecting the urinary tract. This review examines the current standards in the diagnosis and management of this disease. Cystoscopy and urine cytology remain important tools in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer. Alternatives include photodynamic diagnosis, narrow band imaging and professional image enhancement which may improve detection of tumours. En-bloc resection using either laser or electrocautery shows p...
Source: Surgery (Oxford) - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe present the rare case of a patient with surgically resected locally advanced rectal cancer who demonstrated an impressive pCR with preoperative chemotherapy, which included FOLFOX plus bevacizumab.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONWe present a case of SCC in the anal canal with liver metastasis presenting as a hepatic pseudocyst.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionIn this study, we found that over-expression of TINCR may influence the tumor size and contribute to the poor prognosis of cancer.
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
ConclusionCC shows an indolent clinical behavior, with a low recurrence rate after radical surgery. The diagnosis of this rare tumor is typically made after surgery. An aggressive approach is required with curative intents.
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
In this study, T cells deficient in TRAF6 display enhanced T cell activation, CD28-indpendent stimulation and resistance to Treg cell-mediated suppression (176). Although TLR signaling can promote T cell resistance to Treg cells, the precise molecular mechanism remains yet to be elucidated. It is worth noting that TLR stimulation of T cells increases cytokine production (173, 177), thus future studies should delineate the effect of TLR-MyD88 signaling vs. subsequently induced cytokines in generating resistance to Treg cells. Lastly, it is also crucial to evaluate the effect of TLR signaling on regulatory T cells which also...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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