Hashimoto encephalopathy presenting with stroke-like episodes in an adolescent female: a case report and literature review

Hashimoto encephalitis (HE) is a rare form of encephalopathy thought to be of autoimmune etiology. Cognitive changes and seizures are the most commonly reported presenting manifestation. Stroke-like episodes have been reported to occur during the disease process as well. To our knowledge we report the first know case of pediatric HE presenting with stroke-like symptoms.
Source: Pediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Topical Review Source Type: research

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Demystifying Medicine Lecture Series Encephalitis, the inflammation of the brain, can be brought on by viral, bacterial and fungal infections, autoimmune diseases, and immunosuppression. Many diseases causing encephalitis are transmitted by mosquitos and ticks. As such, encephalitis is sadly pervasive, affecting more than 4 million people annually worldwide and causing upwards of 150,000 deaths. Symptoms range from mild headaches and nausea to debilitating seizures, hallucinations, and difficulty speaking and remembering. The patient volunteers at the NIH Clinical Center, many of whom are immunocompromised, are at a height...
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: General Medicine Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video
Bilateral hippocampal lesions can be a feature in both infectious and autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Although rare, mumps meningoencephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral hippocampal lesions, especially in the presence of symptoms suggestive of systemic and/or CNS infection.
Source: Neurology Clinical Practice - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: MRI, Encephalitis, All Clinical Neurology, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke, EEG; see Epilepsy/Seizures Case Source Type: research
Semin Neurol 2019; 39: 383-390 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1687842Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system are classically associated with immunosuppression arising from infection with human immunodeficiency virus and with various hematologic malignancies. However, over the past few years, they are increasingly associated with transplantation and various immunosuppressive treatments used to treat autoimmune diseases. They cause significant morbidity and mortality and remain a diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical signs and symptoms of infection and mimicry by various noninfectious causes. The pathogens a...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Discussion Facial nerve palsy has been known for centuries, but in 1821 unilateral facial nerve paralysis was described by Sir Charles Bell. Bell’s palsy (BP) is a unilateral, acute facial paralysis that is clinically diagnosed after other etiologies have been excluded by appropriate history, physical examination and/or laboratory testing or imaging. Symptoms include abnormal movement of facial nerve. It can be associated with changes in facial sensation, hearing, taste or excessive tearing. The right and left sides are equally affected but bilateral BP is rare (0.3%). Paralysis can be complete or incomplete at prese...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Shanshan Zhang1, Dongli Yuan2 and Ge Tan1* 1Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China 2The Institute of Medical Information, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Primary systemic vasculitis can affect every structure in both the central and peripheral nervous system, causing varied neurological manifestations of neurological dysfunction. Early recognition of the underlying causes of the neurological symptoms can facilitate timely treatment and improve the prognosis. This review highlights the clinical manifestations of primary systemic vasc...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion The expression of the components of the PTN-MK-RPTPβ/ζ axis in immune cells and in inflammatory diseases suggests important roles for this axis in inflammation. Pleiotrophin has been recently identified as a limiting factor of metainflammation, a chronic pathological state that contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Pleiotrophin also seems to potentiate acute neuroinflammation independently of the inflammatory stimulus while MK seems to play different -even opposite- roles in acute neuroinflammation depending on the stimulus. Which are the functions of MK and PTN in chronic neuroinfla...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
​A 50-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of ringing in his ears and difficulty understanding what people were saying. He was concerned that he was having a stroke. A full neurological exam was unremarkable aside from decreased hearing, but his hearing deficits appeared to be equal bilaterally. Otoscopic exam demonstrated a normal tympanic membrane, and the rest of his physical exam was unremarkable. The patient's past medical history was significant for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, for which he took lisinopril and atorvastatin. He was recently treated with a 10-day course of doxycycl...
Source: The Tox Cave - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: blogs
A 60-year-old woman with no known medical history presented with acute-onset altered mental status and aphasia. She was in her usual state of health until the time of presentation. She was found to have left middle and posterior cerebral artery (MCA and PCA) acute ischemic strokes and subsequently developed refractory status epilepticus. CT angiography showed moderate stenosis of the proximal left internal carotid artery (ICA), occlusion of the right ICA at its origin, and near-complete occlusion of the left vertebral artery (figure). Strokes were attributed to large-vessel atherosclerotic disease in the setting of multipl...
Source: Neurology Clinical Practice - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: All Immunology, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke Case Source Type: research
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Source: The Case Files - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research
AbstractWe discuss the case of a rare and often unrecognized neurologic syndrome, called Acquired Hepatocerebral Degeneration (AHD), observed in patients with advanced liver disease and portosystemic shunts. The clinical manifestations can be very heterogeneous and in our case included a combination of cerebellar and extrapyramidal signs, arisen in a period of few days. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed, in T1-weighted images, diffuse bilateral hyper intensities in basal ganglia and biemispheric brain and cerebellar cortices, resembling paramagnetic deposits. No other neurological impairments, like stroke, infe...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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