Timing of predisposing factors is important in necrotic enteritis models.

Timing of predisposing factors is important in necrotic enteritis models. Avian Pathol. 2016 Feb 29;:1-21 Authors: Van Waeyenberghe L, De Gussem M, Verbeke J, Dewaele I, De Gussem J Abstract Since the ban of antimicrobial growth promotors, the importance of necrotic enteritis in broilers increases. Reliable and reproducible infection models are required for pathogenesis studies and product screening. Two major predisposing factors in necrotic enteritis models are fishmeal supplementation to feed and Eimeria infection. However, many unsolved issues regarding these predisposing factors still exist. Therefore, the influence of timepoint of fishmeal administration (onset on day 8 or day 18), timing of coccidiosis challenge (day 15 or day 19) and strain of coccidiosis challenge (field strain vs commercial vaccine) on the induction of necrotic enteritis lesions was investigated. The animals were inoculated with Clostridium perfringens three times per day for four consecutive days (day 17 until day 20) and were scored for the presence of necrotic enteritis on days 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26. Supplementation of the diet with fishmeal from day 8 onwards increased the likelihood of necrotic enteritis compared to supplementation from day 18 onwards. Birds challenged on day 19 with coccidiosis were more likely to have necrotic enteritis on scoring days 23 and 24 compared to birds challenged on day 15. Differences on other scoring days were less pronounced. Finally, the s...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

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In this study, 300 broilers were challenged with Clostridium perfringens using a well-established, previously described challenge model. It was found that birds with a higher body weight (BW) and BWG before challenge were predisposed to develop more severe necrotic enteritis lesions. After challenge, the average BWG of the birds developing mild to severe lesions dropped significantly, negatively affecting animal welfare and performance. These results show a significant interplay between BWG and the development of necrotic enteritis lesions. This raises the question whether there is a limit to broiler performance with respe...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
This study provides new insight into the characterization of foodborne C. perfringens and highlights the potential of WGS for the investigation of FBOs. Introduction Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, known as an important causative agent of foodborne and non-foodborne gastroenteritis (Grass et al., 2013). The ability of this bacterium to form resistant spores contributes to its survival in many environmental niches, including soil, sewage, foods, and the intestinal microbiota of humans and animals (Xiao, 2014; Li et al., 2016). C. perfringens can cause necro...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract The prevalence and lethality associated with C. perfringens alpha (CPA) and enterotoxin (CPE) toxaemia necessitate the need for rapid and definitive detection systems to initiate management measures. In the present study, a sandwich duplex immuno-capture PCR (SD-IPCR) was developed by employing IgY antibodies against a bivalent protein r-Cpae derived from CPA and CPE for antigen capture and reporter antibodies against truncated CPA or CPE conjugated to oligomers of distinguishable size for antigen revealing and signal amplification. The avian immunoglobulin's (IgY) were devoid of reactivity with S. aureus...
Source: Anaerobe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research
This study analyzes the effects of heat stress on Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, pathological features, and Toll-like receptor expression in the small intestine of broiler chickens infected with Clostridium perfringens type A in the presence or absence of Eimeria spp. co-infection. This co-infection model was experimentally used because it reproduces the findings commonly observed in the field during avian NE. For this purpose, broiler chickens infected with C. perfringens and/or Eimeria spp. were reared in isolator chambers subjected or not to heat stress intermittently. It was observed that heat stress directs the expression ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2019Source: Research in Veterinary ScienceAuthor(s): Atilio Sersun Calefi, Catarina Augusta de Queiroz Nunes, Juliana Garcia da Silva Fonseca, Wanderley Moreno Quinteiro-Filho, Antonio José Piantino Ferreira, João Palermo-NetoAbstractHeat stress has a relevant effect on animal health and productivity. Stress and environmental changes can contribute to disease development, such as avian necrotic enteritis (NE). The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of heat stress applied to broiler chickens in an experimental model of co-infection with Clostridium perfr...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract Heat stress is a physical environmental stressor, which can affect performance, health and welfare of poultry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cyclic acute heat stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks in an experimental challenge model. Two hundred and forty broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four treatment groups according to the following experimental design: group A, was served as negative control (25 oC), group B, birds were subjected to cyclic acute heat stress (35 oC), group C, birds were challenged and group D, birds were both su...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Abstract Several enteric clostridial diseases can affect humans and animals. Of these, the enteric infections caused by Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile are amongst the most prevalent and they are reviewed here. C. perfringens type A strains encoding alpha toxin (CPA) are frequently associated with enteric disease of many animal mammalian species, but their role in these diseased mammals remains to be clarified. C. perfringens type B encoding CPA, beta (CPB) and epsilon (ETX) toxins causes necro-hemorrhagic enteritis, mostly in sheep, and these strains have been recently suggested to be involved i...
Source: Anaerobe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research
The objective of this work was to assess the effect on virulence of mutation of the cyclic-di-GMP signaling genes present on the large pathogenicity locus (NELoc-1) in the tcp-encoding conjugative virulence plasmid, pNetB. For this purpose, the diguanylate cyclase (dgc) and phosphodiesterase (pde) genes were individually insertionally inactivated and the two mutants were subsequently complemented with their respective genes. Southern blotting showed that a single gene insertion was present. Mutation of either gene resulted in almost total attenuation of the mutants to cause NE in experimentally-infected broiler chickens, w...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to develop a chicken intestinal ligated loop model in order to compare the virulence of various C. perfringens strains recovered from consecutive ABF flocks with and without NE. Intestinal loops were surgically prepared in 10 anaesthetized specific-pathogen-free chickens and alternately inoculated with C. perfringens isolates or brain heart infusion (BHI) media. Histological lesion scoring was performed for each loop. All strains from NE-affected flocks induced histological lesions compatible with NE whereas inoculation of loops with a commensal C. perfringens strain or BHI did not. Among in...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
This study expands our understanding of the mechanisms involved in necrotic enteritis pathogenesis by demonstrating the importance of C. perfringens adherence to extracellular matrix proteins.
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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