Environmental Pollution: An Under-recognized Threat to Children’s Health, Especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Conclusions Patterns of disease are changing rapidly in LMICs. Pollution-related chronic diseases are becoming more common. This shift presents a particular problem for children, who are proportionately more heavily exposed than are adults to environmental pollutants and for whom these exposures are especially dangerous. Better quantification of environmental exposures and stepped-up efforts to understand how to prevent exposures that cause disease are needed in LMICs and around the globe. To confront the global problem of disease caused by pollution, improved programs of public health monitoring and environmental protection are needed in countries at every level of economic development. Pollution control strategies and technologies that have been developed and successfully deployed in HICs need to be transferred to LMICs, and their implementation must be adequately funded. Pollution control strategies in HICs have succeeded by controlling exposures at the source. For instance, lead has been removed from gasoline (Grosse et al. 2002), asbestos use has been sharply curtailed and banned in some countries (Frank and Joshi 2014), and air and water pollution have been reduced. Highly toxic pesticides have been replaced. These actions have produced tangible benefits for human health and the environment. Such strategies can also succeed in LMICs, as evidenced by experience with reducing lead in gasoline, with resulting declines in children’s blood lead levels in countries such...
What might account for the apparent paradox that while obesity and AF are clearly related, overweight and obese patients with AF may have a better prognosis than healthy-weight patients?American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs
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Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood motor disability, affecting 2 to 3/1000 children worldwide. Clinical abnormalities in tone, posture, and movement are the result of brain dysgenesis or injury early in life, and impairment varies in type, distribution, and in severity. The underlying brain disorder may also lead to other associated neurologic and systemic impairments. Variability in functional impairments, which can change during development, necessitates an individualized treatment plan. Treatment options are primarily symptomatic and directed toward optimizing independence, function, and/or ease of car...
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CONCLUSION On the whole, FDA seems very enthusiastic about the possibilities for AI to improve healthcare.Â Thatâs gratifying to see. While progress in the development of a new regulatory approach is slow, thatâs also not all bad. It would be worse in many ways for FDA to act precipitously.Â These are complicated issues, and it will take time to develop an appropriate approach, in part because it will take time for FDA to acquire enough expertise. And most likely, whatever new approach we come up with will require new statutory authority. That said, it is incumben...
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CONCLUSION: Survival across the two time periods remained stable for oral SCC but showed a significant increase for oropharyngeal SCC, possibly because of improvements in the patients ’ response to radiotherapy, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, and the use of more accurate diagnostic imaging approaches.
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