Signs and Symptoms of Colon Cancer

By Stacy Simon Many of the symptoms of colon cancer can also be caused by something that isn’t cancer, such as infection, hemorrhoids, irritable bowel syndrome, or inflammatory bowel disease. In most cases, people who have these symptoms do not have cancer. Still, if you have any of these problems, it is a sign that you should go to the doctor so the cause can be found and treated, if needed:A change in bowel habits, such as diarrhea, constipation, or narrowing of the stool, that lasts for more than a few daysA feeling that you need to have a bowel movement that is not relieved by doing soRectal bleedingDark stools, or blood in the stool (often, though, the stool will look normal)Cramping or abdominal (belly) painWeakness and fatigueUnintended weight lossWhen colon cancer does turn out to be the cause, symptoms often appear only after the cancer has grown or spread. That’s why it’s best to be tested for colon cancer before ever having any symptoms. Colon cancer that’s found through screening – testing that’s done on people with no symptoms – is usually easier to treat. Screening can even prevent some colon cancers by finding and removing pre-cancerous growths called polyps.Screening could save your life Because colon cancer often doesn’t cause symptoms until it is advanced, the American Cancer Society recommends regular colon cancer screening for most people starting at age 50. People with a family history of the disease or who ...
Source: American Cancer Society :: News and Features - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Colon/Rectum Cancer Prevention/Early Detection Source Type: news

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AbstractLayered double hydroxides (LDHs) are 2D ionic lamellar nanomaterials, which attract increasing interest for applications in different fields. This paper shows that their morphology is strongly affected by the microstructure of the substrate on which they grow. Zn –Al LDHs were grown in the same conditions on Al substrates with different microstructural features obtained from cold-rolled sheets by annealing at 265 °C for increasing soaking time up to 1 h. LDH morphology was then investigated through scanning electron microscopy observations. The homogene ous distribution of petals on the substrat...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Cytosolic arginine sensor for mTORC1 subunits 1 and 2 (CASTOR1 and CASTOR2) inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) upon arginine deprivation. mTORC1 regulates cell proliferation, survival, and metabolism and is often dysregulated in cancers, indicating that cancer cells may regulate CASTOR1 and CASTOR2 to control mTORC1 signaling and promote tumorigenesis. mTORC1 is the most effective therapeutic target of Kaposi sarcoma, which is caused by infection with the Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Hence, KSHV-induced cellular transformation is a suitable model for investigating mTORC1 reg...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
The presence of tumor-infiltrating T cells is associated with favorable patient outcomes, yet most pancreatic cancers are immunologically silent and resistant to currently available immunotherapies. Here we show using a syngeneic orthotopic implantation model of pancreatic cancer that Pik3ca regulates tumor immunogenicity. Genetic silencing of Pik3ca in KrasG12D/Trp53R172H-driven pancreatic tumors resulted in infiltration of T cells, complete tumor regression, and 100% survival of immunocompetent host mice. By contrast, Pik3ca-null tumors implanted in T cell–deficient mice progressed and killed all of the animals. Ad...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Glycosylation of immune receptors and ligands, such as T cell receptor and coinhibitory molecules, regulates immune signaling activation and immune surveillance. However, how oncogenic signaling initiates glycosylation of coinhibitory molecules to induce immunosuppression remains unclear. Here we show that IL-6–activated JAK1 phosphorylates programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) Tyr112, which recruits the endoplasmic reticulum–associated N-glycosyltransferase STT3A to catalyze PD-L1 glycosylation and maintain PD-L1 stability. Targeting of IL-6 by IL-6 antibody induced synergistic T cell killing effects when combined...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Programmed death-1 receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a promising therapeutic target in aggressive cancers. However, immune landscapes and cancer hallmarks of human PD-L1+ tumors as well as their roles in determining therapeutic efficacies are unknown. Here, we showed, in detailed studies of gene data regarding 9769 patients of 32 types of human cancers, that PD-L1 could not exclusively represent the IFN-γ signature and potentially signified proinflammatory myeloid responses in a tumor. PD-L1 heterogeneity endowed by local immune landscapes controlled cancer hallmarks and clinical outcomes of patients. Mechanically, NF-&ka...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 July 2019Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering AspectsAuthor(s): Ying Wang, Jingwen Chen, Qianqian Han, Qiang Luo, Hongmei Zhang, Yanqing WangAbstractLentinan(LNT) has many kinds of pharmacological activities such as antioxidative activities, hypoglycemic effect, anti-hyperlipidemic effect and so on. Here, LNT was used as the skeleton material to couple with doxorubicin(DOX) by forming the LNT–DOX conjugates in order to enhance anticancer effects and reduce the systemic side effects of DOX. Based on the screening results, we observed that LNT can acted ...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
ABSTRACT This research evaluated the effect of different delignification pretreatments (enzymatic and organosolv), on the crystallinity and enzymatic hydrolysis of harvested sugar cane residues. The Crystallinity Index (CrI), the Relative Number of Intensity (Ir), the degree of cellulose mercerization (IIC-%), and the Global Index of Saccharification (GIS) were used as measurement parameters for six different substrates obtained from sugar cane residues (tops and leaves) by different processes. In this characterization, the spectroscopic ty Techniques of Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction and...
Source: Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Abstract Brazil is a country of continental dimensions and most genetic services are concentrated in the Southeast and South, including the Medical Genetics Service of the Hospital de Cl ínicas de Porto Alegre (MGS/HCPA). As many areas on the country do not have adequate medical genetics support, networks were designed to extend the service of the MGS/HCPA reference center. This paper presents the information and diagnosis networks that have their headquarters at MGS/HCPA: SIAT (Na tional Information System on Teratogenic Agents), SIEM (Information Service on Inborn Errors of Metabolism), Alô Genética (...
Source: Genetics and Molecular Biology - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) genes confer high risk of developing cancer, especially breast and ovarian tumors. Since the cloning of these tumor suppressor genes over two decades ago, a significant amount of research has been done. Most recently, monoallelic loss-of-function mutations in PALB2 have also been shown to increase the risk of breast cancer. The identification of BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 as proteins involved in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination and of the impact of complete loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 within tumors have allowed the development of novel therapeutic appro...
Source: Genetics and Molecular Biology - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this study, our aim was to compare the Gail and Tyrer-Cuzick models after initial screening for familial history of cancer in primary care using the FHS-7 questionnaire. We compared 846 unrelated women with at least one positive answer to any of the seven FHS-7 questions (positive group) and 892 unrelated women that answered negatively (negative group). Concordance between BC risk estimates was compared by Bland-Altman graphics. Mean BC risk estimates were higher using the Tyrer-Cuzick Model in women from the positive group, while women from the negative group had higher BC risk estimates using the Gail model. With incr...
Source: Genetics and Molecular Biology - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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