Some Chemotherapy Drugs May Increase the Percentage of Patients whose Tumors Respond to Immune Checkpoint Therapy (Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center | Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center)

The use of certain traditional chemotherapy drugs may expand the number of tumors that respond to one of today's most promising cancer therapies - immune checkpoint blockade. Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Systems Biology report in the Feb. 16 issue of the journal Immunity that inducing the infiltration of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) - immune cells that kill cancer cells and cells that are infected or in other ways damaged - into lung tumors sensitized otherwise unre...
Source: National Comprehensive Cancer Network - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Vassilios Myrianthopoulos, Konstantinos Evangelou, Panagiotis V.S. Vasileiou, Tomer Cooks, Theodoros P. Vassilakopoulos, Gerassimos A. Pangalis, Myrsini Kouloukoussa, Christos Kittas, Alexandros G. Georgakilas, Vassilis G. GorgoulisAbstractCellular senescence is a stress response mechanism ensuring homeostasis. Its temporal activation during embryonic development or normal adult life is linked with beneficial properties. In contrast, persistent (chronic) senescence seems to exert detrimental effects fostering aging and age-rel...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
AbstractLiposomal therapies opened the chapter of nanomedicine, in 1995, with the approval of liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil®) for the treatment of numerous types of cancer. For the first time, liposomes permitted the employment of potent chemotherapeutic agents with improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, with less undesired side effects. Liposomal therapies allow the drug encapsulation and more selective delivery in the tumor bed, particularly due to the enhanced permeation and retention effect. These unique characteristics explain why liposomal therapies are being increasingly considered as alternatives...
Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This article provides an overview of AZD1775, based on English peer-reviewed articles on MEDLINE. The authors highlight the data from the published preclinical and clinical studies. Expert opinion: A majority of the current clinical trials focus on AZD1775 combined with chemotherapy or radiation. Treatment with AZD1775 was tolerated and antitumor activity has been observed, especially in patients with advanced malignancies harboring G1 checkpoint aberrations and/or DNA damage repair defects. Thus, identification of the molecular subtypes that benefit most from the treatment with AZD1775 alone or in combination may provide ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Investig Drugs Source Type: research
Abstract Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are heavily linked to fatal incidences of cancer relapse and metastasis. Conventional cancer therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are largely futile against CSCs. Therefore, highly original approaches are needed to overcome CSCs and provide durable, long-term clinical outcomes. Many academia- and pharmaceutical-led studies aimed at developing chemical or biological anti-CSC agents are ongoing, however, the application of inorganic compounds is rare. In this minireview we discuss how the chemical diversity and versatility offered by metals has been harnessed to de...
Source: Chembiochem - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Chembiochem Source Type: research
In this study, the medicinal properties of betulin from B. platyphylla var. japonica useful for cancer management were investigated. LC/MS analysis revealed that betulin is a main chemical component of the EtOH extract of B. platyphylla var. japonica bark, and betulin was isolated from EtOH extract using an LC/MS-guided isolation method. Its structure was identified with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic data and LC/MS analysis and then compared to the previously reported spectroscopic and physical data. We first verified the cytotoxicity of betulin against three human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549, H1264, and Calu-6, wi...
Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Arch Pharm Res Source Type: research
ConclusionLower levels of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic small molecules and higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory clinical parameters such as NO, MDA, TNF-α and MMP-9 may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic chemotherapy related ocular complications such as cataract, glaucoma, blepharitis, retinitis pigmentosa, macular degeneration, pterygium and retinal degeneration etc.
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Purpose of review We aim to summarize the utility of strain in monitoring the effects of cancer therapy-related cardiotoxicity (CTRC) on the development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Recent findings Serial assessment of cardiac function at baseline and during treatment is recommended in patients undergoing cancer treatment. Historically, the use of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has been used to monitor for cardiac toxicity from cancer therapies but myocardial mechanic parameters, in particular global longitudinal strain (GLS), have emerged as powerful adjunctive tools. On the basis of longitudinal ...
Source: Current Opinion in Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Tags: IMAGING AND HEART FAILURE: MYOCARDIAL STRAIN: Edited by Sherif Nagueh Source Type: research
(University of East Anglia) A new cancer therapy using nanoparticles to deliver a combination therapy direct to cancer cells could be on the horizon.Using nanoparticles to get drugs directly into a tumor is a growing area of cancer research. The technology developed at UEA is the first of its kind to use nanoparticles to deliver two drugs in combination to target cancer cells. The therapy has been shown to make breast cancer and prostate cancer tumors more sensitive to chemotherapy.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Abstract BMI-1 (B-lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1) is a key protein partner in polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) that helps in maintaining the integrity of the complex. It is also a key player in ubiquitination of histone H2A which affects gene expression pattern involved in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, growth, DNA repair, apoptosis and senescence. In many cancers, Overexpression of BMI1correlates with advanced stages of disease, aggressive clinicopathological behavior, poor prognosis resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. BMI1 is emerging as a key player in EMT, chemo-resistance...
Source: Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Gene Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Gwenola Manic, Antonella Sistigu, Francesca Corradi, Martina Musella, Ruggero De Maria, Ilio VitaleAbstractCancer stem cells (CSCs) are subpopulations of multipotent stem cells (SCs) responsible for the initiation, long-term clonal maintenance, growth and spreading of most human neoplasms. Reportedly, CSCs share a very robust DNA damage response (DDR) with embryonic and adult SCs, which allows them to survive endogenous and exogenous genotoxins. A range of experimental evidence indicates that CSCs have high but heterogeneous levels...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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