Endogenous Endothelial Progenitor Cells Participate in Neovascularization via CXCR4/SDF-1 axis and Improve Outcome After Stroke.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that endogenous EPCs participated in the neovascularization via CXCR4/SDF-1 axis after pMCAO and mobilizing endogenous EPCs could be a treatment alternative for stroke. PMID: 24581269 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research

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Reperfusion injury follows ischemia/reperfusion events occurring during myocardial infarction, stroke, embolism, and other peripheral vascular diseases. Decreased blood flow and reduced oxygen tension during ischemic episodes activate cellular pathways that upregulate pro-inflammatory signaling and promote oxidant generation. Reperfusion after ischemia recruits inflammatory cells to the vascular wall, further exacerbating oxidant production and ultimately resulting in cell death, tissue injury, and organ dysfunction. Diving mammals tolerate repetitive episodes of peripheral ischemia/reperfusion as part of the cardiovascula...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Previous studies have estimated that the risk of recurrent stroke was nearly 20% shortly after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. A missing or hypoplastic (
Source: Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Bayesian probabilistic method has shown promising results to offset noise-related variability in perfusion analysis. Using CTP, we aimed to find optimal Bayesian-estimated thresholds based on multiparametric voxel-level models to estimate the ischemic core in patients with acute ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke who had baseline CTP and achieved successful recanalization were included. In a subset of patients, multiparametric voxel-based models were constructed between Bayesian-processed CTP maps and follow-up MRIs to identify pretr...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research
Objectives: Endovascular therapy (EVT) improves outcomes for appropriately selected acute ischemic stroke patients. Guidelines suggest rapid acquisition of noninvasive vascular imaging to screen suspected ischemic stroke patients for large vessel occlusion (LVO) and candidacy for EVT. We sought to quantify the yield of an LVO stroke screening process in an undifferentiated emergency department (ED) suspected stroke population as well as identify predictors of successful EVT. Methods: We identified a cohort of consecutive ED patients who received CT angiography and brain perfusion (CTA/P) imaging to determine candidacy for EVT during 2016.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
In 2009, the Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) published training guidelines for intraarterial catheter-directed treatment of acute ischemic stroke (1). At that time, catheter-directed thrombolysis was the dominant endovascular therapy and the only such therapy studied in randomized trials (2,3). Only first-generation mechanical thrombectomy devices were available. Computed tomographic (CT) angiography, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, and perfusion imaging were not routinely used for assessment of large-vessel occlusion and/or parenchymal infarction and ischemia.
Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Standards of Practice Source Type: research
AbstractMechanical thrombectomy for the treatment of ischemic stroke shows high rates of recanalization; however, some patients still have a poor clinical outcome. A proposed reason for this relates to the fact that the ischemic infarct growth differs significantly between patients. While some patients demonstrate rapid evolution of their infarct core (fast evolvers), others have substantial potentially salvageable penumbral tissue even hours after initial vessel occlusion (slow evolvers). We show that the dog middle cerebral artery occlusion model recapitulates this key aspect of human stroke rendering it a highly desirab...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe results suggested that the proposed network performs equally well for both control and acute ischemic stroke groups. The proposed network could help automate the assessment of collateral status in an efficient and effective manner and improve the quality and yield of diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. The follow-up study will entail the clinical evaluation of the collateral images that are generated by the proposed network.
Source: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery - Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research
Conclusion: This case report suggests that further randomized studies may evaluate whether repeated IVtPA may be safe and effective in ERS occurring shortly after a previous stroke when patients experience a period of complete neurological regression, minor disability, and a small infarct volume. Should the hypothesis be confirmed, small volume core and wide volume penumbra at perfusion CT may support the decision of adopting IVtPA repetition.
Source: The Neurologist - Category: Neurology Tags: Case Report/Case Series Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), it is critical to decrease the associated risk of debilitating vascular complications, including stroke, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and peripheral vascular disease. Treatment options for reducing the risk of all subtypes of stroke in patients with CKD remain limited. For patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), novel applications of noninvasive imaging may help personalize the type of dialysis and dialysis prescription for patients at high-risk. SUMMARY: This manuscript reviews the heigh...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeIn patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by large vessel occlusion (LVO), endovascular treatment (EVT) is highly effective for emergency revascularization. However, data on functional outcome are lacking for patients, which show no or minimal mismatch between ischemic core and penumbra.MethodsForty-five patients with AIS due to LVO of the anterior circulation were retrospectively analyzed within 6  h since onset when administered to our department. In all patients, there was no relevant penumbra according to CT perfusion (CTP). Functional outcome, defined by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at...
Source: Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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