Role of pathogens in multiple sclerosis.

Role of pathogens in multiple sclerosis. Int Rev Immunol. 2014 Jul-Aug;33(4):266-83 Authors: Libbey JE, Cusick MF, Fujinami RS Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although the etiology of MS is unknown, genetic and environmental factors play a role. Infectious pathogens are the likely environmental factors involved in the development of MS. Pathogens associated with the development or exacerbation of MS include bacteria, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae, the Staphylococcus aureus-produced enterotoxins that function as superantigens, viruses of the herpes virus (Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 6) and human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families and the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii. Evidence, from studies with humans and animal models, supporting the association of these various pathogens with the development and/or exacerbation of MS will be discussed along with the potential mechanisms including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading and bystander activation. In contrast, infection with certain parasites such as helminthes (Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercolaris, Enterobius vermicularis) appears to protect against the development or exacerbation of MS. Evidence supporting the ability of parasitic infections to protect against disease will be discussed ...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

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Authors: Tsifi A, Papaxoinis G, Diamantopoulos P, Mantzourani M, Antoniadou V, Halioti A, Gogas H Abstract In the current report we present the case of a patient experiencing a life-threatening drug-drug interaction involving the concurrent administration of capecitabine and brivudine. A 65- year-old female with metastatic breast cancer was commenced on brivudine for Herpes Zoster, while on capecitabine treatment, by a physician unfamiliar with the potential repercussions of this drug-drug interaction. As a result, she developed skin rash, severe oral mucositis, and severe and prolonged pancytopenia. These side eff...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): R.E.B. Hanna, D. Moffett, M.W. Robinson, W.G.Z.O. Jura, G.P. Brennan, I. Fairweather, L.T. ThreadgoldAbstractCytochemical staining techniques were carried out en bloc with in vitro excysted and gut-penetrated Fasciola gigantica larvae in order to visualise the glycocalyx of the tegument, a structure which comprises the parasite component of the host-parasite interface, yet is incompletely preserved by conventional fixation and preparation techniques for electron microscopy. Positive reactivity with ruthenium red and periodic acid-...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
ConclusionThe prevalence of anti tTG antibodies in irritable bowel syndrome is high. Patients with D-IBS should be screened for celiac disease.ResumoIntroduçãoA síndrome do intestino irritável (SII) é um distúrbio gastrointestinal comum; a doença celíaca é uma enteropatia autoimune que pode imitar qualquer distúrbio gastrointestinal funcional. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de anticorpos contra a doença celíaca (antitransglutaminase tecidual - tTG) em pacientes com SII.Pacientes e MétodosEste estudo transvers...
Source: Journal of Coloproctology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Abstract Although Ethiopia has an overall lower prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum among countries in Africa, the emergence of drug resistance could seriously hinder elimination efforts. Using samples collected from five therapeutic efficacy studies conducted in 2007-11, we evaluated the prevalence of putative drug resistance mutations in the pfcrt, pfmdr1, and kelch13 genes at the time of those studies, as well as the ama1 gene for genetic relatedness using a pooled amplicon deep sequencing approach. Among all sites, the kelch13 gene showed no mutations, whereas the pfcrt CVIET genotype was fixed in all populati...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract Strongyloidiasis, caused by Strongyloides stercoralis infection, is an important neglected tropical disease that causes significant public health problems in the tropics and subtropics. The disease can persist in hosts for decades and may be life-threatening because of hyperinfection and dissemination. Ivermectin (mostly) and albendazole are the most common anthelmintics used for treatment. Albendazole is suboptimal for this parasite, and although ivermectin is quite effective in immunocompromised patients, a multiple-course regimen is required. Furthermore, reliance on a single drug class for treating in...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
We present a 48-year-old woman affected by metastatic uveal melanoma treated with nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks). The patient had no previous history of autoimmune disease or dermatologic conditions. At the fourth month of treatment, on cutaneous examination, she presented multiple whitish vitiligo-like patches on the trunk, axillae, hands and face. Diagnosis of melanoma-associated leukoderma vitiliginous reaction was made. Over the following months, the melanoma-associated leukoderma lesions slowly progressed with cigarette paper-like appearance and indurated texture. A skin biopsy leaded the diagnosis of extragenital ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
Authors: Senerovic L, Opsenica D, Moric I, Aleksic I, Spasić M, Vasiljevic B Abstract Infective diseases have become health threat of a global proportion due to appearance and spread of microorganisms resistant to majority of therapeutics currently used for their treatment. Therefore, there is a constant need for development of new antimicrobial agents, as well as novel therapeutic strategies. Quinolines and quinolones, isolated from plants, animals, and microorganisms, have demonstrated numerous biological activities such as antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, and antitumor. For more tha...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Sousa SM, Sousa TM, Silva CF, Mendes CC Abstract Thrombocytopenia is a clinically important condition that can lead to several problems when not correctly diagnosed. A decrease of platelet counts due to an in vitro phenomenon, Pseudothrombocytopenia, can be misunderstood and unnecessarily treated. The present case study describes a 57-year-old male with a history of pancreas adenocarcinoma and a current Staphylococcus aureus infection without any signs or symptoms that could explain the low levels of platelets obtained after blood analysis. Blood smear evaluation detected both platelet satellitism and phag...
Source: Platelets - Category: Hematology Tags: Platelets Source Type: research
ConclusionViral infections contributed to the increase in morbidity and mortality of CF patients in our population, and rhinovirus was the most common causative agent. Viral infections and viral recurrence increased the prevalence of bacterial infection of specific pathogens such as H. influenza and S. aureus. Physicians should be aware to prevent progressive lung damage in CF patients by treating the concomitant viral and bacterial infections. Viral infection may be associated with some common CFTR mutations.
Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2019Source: Human Pathology: Case Reports, Volume 18Author(s): Joichi Usui, Steven P. Salvatore, Mourhege Alsaloum, Alla Goldberg, Sheng Kuo, Surya V. SeshanAbstractIgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4RKD) generally presents as an active and chronic fibrosing tubulointerstitial nephritis. Recent reports have described glomerular lesions, typically with IgG4 containing subepithelial/membranous deposits as part of IgG4RKD. Herein, we report a case of IgG4-related membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and associated tubulointerstitial nephritis in the clinical setting of IgG4-related autoimmune dise...
Source: Human Pathology: Case Reports - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
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