Anti-infectious human vaccination in historical perspective.
Anti-infectious human vaccination in historical perspective. Int Rev Immunol. 2015 Nov 25;:1-32 Authors: D'Amelio E, Salemi S, D'Amelio R Abstract A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be developed. In the era of modern vaccines, in addition to the conjugate polysaccharide, hepatitis A, oral typhoid, and varicella vaccines, the advent of molecular biology enabled to develop hepatitis B, acellular pertussis, papillomavirus, and rotavirus recombinant vaccines. Great successes have been achieved in the fight against infectious diseases, including the smallpox global eradication, the nearly disappearance of polio, the control of tetanus, diphtheria, measles, rubella, yellow fever, and rabies. However, much work should still be done for improving old vaccines, such as BCG, anthrax, smallpox, plague, or for developing effective vaccines against old or emerging infectious threats, such as human-immunodeficiency-virus, malaria, hepatiti...
We present a brief overview of the potential prophylactic and treatment agents under investigation, some which could be initiated in the ED if proven effective.
[Daily Maverick] While the promise of repositioning 'old' drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is tantalising, it is critical that the hazards of using unapproved treatments are shared with the public to prevent needless fatalities and supply shortages that may further burden already strained healthcare systems.
Contributor : Johannes TextorSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensCancer vaccines utilizing naturally circulating dendritic cell (DC) subsets, such as plasmacutoid DCs (pDCs) and type 2 convential DCs (cDC2s), have demonstrated their potential as a therapy. For melanoma in recent clinical trials. These DC vaccines aim to. human. DC subsets on the. T cell transcriptional program, which. forms the. molecular. basis. of an. antitumor. T cell response, is. poorly understood. In. this study, we investigated the eraly gene expressionsignature of CD8+ T. cells following. stimulati...
Contributors : Christine Yu ; Kaoru Hida ; Efstathia PapafragkouSeries Type : Expression profiling by genome tiling arrayOrganism : Allium fistulosum ; Apium graveolens ; Astrovirus sp. ; Bacillus subtilis ; Coxsackievirus ; Hepatitis E virus ; Hepatovirus A ; Norovirus ; Rotavirus ; Sapovirus ; Solanum lycopersicum ; unidentified adenovirusThe capability of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Enteric Viruses tiling microarray (FDA-EVIR) was assessed for rapid molecular identification of human norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) extracted from artificially inoculated fresh produce. Two published viral extraction ...
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2020Source: Regulatory Toxicology and PharmacologyAuthor(s): Alan Stokes, Johanne Pion, Ornella Binazon, Benoit Laffont, Maude Bigras, Guillaume Dubois, Karine Blouin, Jamie K. Young, Michael A. Ringenberg, Nawel Ben Abdeljelil, Julius Haruna, Luis-Alexander Rodriguez
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2020Source: Journal of Genetics and GenomicsAuthor(s): Gang Liu, Haijuan Xiao, Linlin Liu, Lingyun Guo, Ruolan Guo, Xuyun Hu, Chanjuan Hao, Jingang Gui, Weiwei Jiao, Fang Xu, Adong Shen, Wei Li
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allograft rejection, which is reflected by high gene-expression profiling (GEP) scores. The effect of CMV infection on serial GEP scores in the absence of acute cellular rejection (ACR) is unknown.
Donor to recipient CMV mismatch leads to high incidence of CMV infection post lung transplant leading to inferior long-term patient outcomes. CMV latently infected cells ubiquitously express a surface marker, US28. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a novel fusion toxin protein (F49A-FTP) that targets US28 in human lungs during EVLP, with the ultimate goal of minimizing or preventing CMV reactivation post transplantation.
In this study we analyzed the glycoprotein B (gB) and pentameric complex (PC)-specific AB-responses as well as the antibodies ’ neutralizing and NK-cell activating effector functions following lung transplantation.
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important viral pathogen in lung-transplant recipients (LTRs), which may cause tissue-invasive disease. The risk for HCMV-replication depends on HCMV-specific immune responses, which may limit viral spread after lung-transplantation. NKG2C+ Natural-Killer (NK-) cells limit HCMV replication, even under immunosuppressive therapy. NK-cell activation can be mediated by the NKG2C receptor, which binds to HLA-E molecules on the surface of HCMV-infected cells, and these are stabilized by an HCMV-encoded UL40 peptide.
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