GI highlights from the literature

Basic scienceThe role of interleukin-22 in epithelial barrier integrity Lindemans CA, Calafiore M, Mertelsmann AM, et al. Interleukin-22 promotes intestinal-stem-cell-mediated epithelial regeneration. Nature 2015;528:560–4. Maintenance and regeneration of the epithelial barrier is critical in preventing infection and inflammation in the GI tract. Innate lymphoid cells (group 3, ILC3s) have immunoregulatory capacity in Crohn's disease by killing commensal stimulated pro-inflammatory T cells, but the role of ILC3s in barrier regeneration is unknown. ILC3s produce interleukin (IL) 17 and IL-22 in mucosal tissues. IL-22 is known to be an inflammatory suppressor. Lindemans and colleagues assessed the effect of IL-22 on intestinal stem cells using mouse small intestinal organoids. They showed that exposure to recombinant IL-22 induced cell proliferation and an increased size of organoids. Coculturing organoids with lymphocytes extracted from the lamina propria (LPLs) also increased organoid size, but not when cocultured with LPLs from IL-22 knock-out mice....
Source: Gut - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: JournalScan Source Type: research

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Rationale: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can be complicated with Crohn disease (CD). Irritable bowel disease (IBD) associated with MDS has already been reported in the past; however, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is rarely performed. Herein, we report a case of CD with MDS for HSCT. Patient concerns: A 41-year-old man was hospitalized due to abdominal pain and intermittent fever for 40 days. Two years later, he was readmitted due to abdominal pain and diarrhea with fever for 10 days. Diagnosis: Symptoms, laboratory examinations, and imaging findings of the patient were indicative of CD complicated...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Abstract Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that signal using endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and the agonist, nicotine. The nAChR signaling pathway is a central regulator of physiological homeostasis in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The receptors are expressed not only in the nervous system, but also play a pivotal role in regulation of epithelial cell growth, migration, differentiation, and inflammation processes in various mammalian non-neuronal cells. In the intestine, the Wnt signaling pathway plays a central role in the epithelium and is a principal regulato...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
Although therapeutics in Crohn ’s disease (CD) have dramatically improved, current approaches targeting the immune system have limited success at a population level. Thus, there is a need for future therapeutics to target different pathways/cell types. Recently, patient derived stem cells have shown promise in helping to better understand the molecular basis of disease. We used patient derived organoids (PDOs), produced from both CD and healthy patients’ pinch biopsies, to determine the ability of PDOs to functionally represent the human intestinal epithelium, and to better understand the role of the epithelium in CD.
Source: Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Epithelial Cell Biology/Function in Inflammation Source Type: research
Condition:   Crohn Disease Interventions:   Drug: Mesna;   Drug: Cyclophosphamide;   Drug: Filgrastim;   Procedure: Apheresis catheter placement;   Procedure: Leukapheresis;   Drug: Fludarabine;   Drug: Methylprednisolone;   Drug: Diphenhydramine;   Drug: Acetaminophen;   Drug: anti-thymocyte globulin (rabbit);   D rug: lymphocyte immune globulin;   Biological: Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Infusion;   Drug: Cytoxan Sponsor:   Cedars-...
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Authors: Eljarrah A, Gergues M, Pobiarzyn PW, Sandiford OA, Rameshwar P Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can self-renew and differentiate into cells of all germ layers. MSCs can be easily attracted to the site of tissue insult with high levels of inflammatory mediators. The general ability of MSCs to migrate at the sites of tissue injury suggested an innate ability for these cells to be involved in baseline tissue repair. The bone marrow is one of the primary sources of MSCs, though they can be ubiquitous. An attractive property of MSCs for clinical application is their ability to c...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
This study presents the effects of berberine (BBR) on the aging process resulting in a promising extension of lifespan in model organisms. BBR extended the replicative lifespan, improved the morphology, and boosted rejuvenation markers of replicative senescence in human fetal lung diploid fibroblasts. BBR also rescued senescent cells with late population doubling (PD). Furthermore, the senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal)-positive cell rates of late PD cells grown in the BBR-containing medium were ~72% lower than those of control cells, and its morphology resembled that of young cells. Mechanistically...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, by adenovirus-mediated delivery and inducible transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate the proliferation of both HCs and SCs by combined Notch1 and Myc activation in in vitro and in vivo inner ear adult mouse models. These proliferating mature SCs and HCs maintain their respective identities. Moreover, when presented with HC induction signals, reprogrammed adult SCs transdifferentiate into HC-like cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, our data suggest that regenerated HC-like cells likely possess functional transduction channels and are able to form connections with adult auditory neurons. Epige...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract Medical treatment remains the mainstay of perianal disease management for CD; however, aggressive surgical management should be considered for severe or recurrent disease. In all cases of perianal CD, medical and surgical treatments should be used in tandem by a multidisciplinary team. Significant development has been made in the treatment of Crohn's-related fistulas, particularly minimally invasive options with recent clinical trials showing success with mesenchymal stem cell applications. Inevitably, some patients with severe refractory disease may require fecal diversion or proctectomy. When considerin...
Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Surg Clin North Am Source Type: research
Contributors : Carolina Serena ; Miriam Ejarque ; Alfonso Saera ; Joan Vendrell ; Sonia Fern ández-VeledoSeries Type : Methylation profiling by arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensPathological expansion of adipose tissue (AT) is supported by adipocyte precursors, termed adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Elucidation of mechanisms underlying ASC function may lead to therapeutic interventions to use in cell therapy treatments on Crohn ’s disease patients. Using epigenome-wide association studies, we explored the impact of Crohn’s disease on the methylation signature of human ASCs
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Methylation profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Medical treatment remains the mainstay of perianal disease management for CD; however, aggressive surgical management should be considered for severe or recurrent disease. In all cases of perianal CD, medical and surgical treatments should be used in tandem by a multidisciplinary team. Significant development has been made in the treatment of Crohn's-related fistulas, particularly minimally invasive options with recent clinical trials showing success with mesenchymal stem cell applications. Inevitably, some patients with severe refractory disease may require fecal diversion or proctectomy. When considering reversal of a di...
Source: Surgical Clinics of North America - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
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