Altered Functional Connectivity of the Insula and Nucleus Accumbens in Internet Gaming Disorder: A Resting State fMRI Study

Conclusion: The elevated inter-hemispheric insula FC is found to be associated with impulsivity and might explain why it is involved in IGD. The attenuated frontostriatal suggests that the emotion-driven gaming urge through nucleus accumbens could not be well regulated by the frontal lobe of subjects with IGD.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:192-200
Source: European Addiction Research - Category: Addiction Source Type: research

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AbstractPurposeIndividuals with substance use disorders are besieged by stigma, within their community and also the broader social context. This stigma may also pervade interactions with health care professionals, preventing individuals with SUD from seeking treatment for medical and/or psychiatric conditions. Given the current opioid crisis, providers must be equipped with the skills to diagnose and treat individuals with SUD, as well as the ability to communicate in an empathic, nonjudgmental manner. While training in addictions has often been absent from medical school curriculum, increasing numbers of programs are inco...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: The brain regional distribution of nAChR binding by 2-[18F]-A85380, specifically highest uptake within thalamus in contrast to the weakest binding within the cerebellum, is consistent with findings from human studies. The elevated maximum binding of 2-[18F]FA-85380 in females may suggest a higher density of nAChR in the female brain. In addition, one of the hypotheses of the nicotine binding mechanisms is that the ligand/receptor complex is trapped in the intracellular acidic vesicles. The slower dissociation rate observed in females may be indicative of stronger trapping. Together, these observed gender diffe...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Basic Science - Synaptic activity and other mechanisms Source Type: research
Akiva Mintz Kiran Kumar Sai Dysregulation of microtubules is commonly associated with several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including addiction and Alzheimer’s disease. Imaging of microtubules in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) could provide valuable information on their role in the development of disease pathogenesis and aid in improving therapeutic regimens. We developed [11C]MPC-6827, the first brain-penetrating PET radiotracer to image microtubules in vivo in the mouse brain. The aim of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of [11C]MPC-6827 PET imaging in non-human prim...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The evidence for psychiatric drug approved by the EMA was in general poor. Small to modest effects v. placebo were considered sufficient in indications where an earlier drug exists. Data retrieval was incomplete after 1 year despite EMA's commitment to transparency. Improvements are needed. PMID: 32336312 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Keynejad RC, David AS Abstract Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinically and radiologically diagnosed disorder distinguished by subcortical vasogenic cerebral edema. To date, its presentation has been described through summarized neurological categories, such as seizures, headaches, "confusion," and "altered mental function." This retrospective case series identified all cases of clinically confirmed, radiologically diagnosed PRES resulting in treatment in a large teaching hospital from 2010 to 2019. The authors conducted a search for the term "reversible ...
Source: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research
This study utilized fMRI guided neuronavigation to examine the effects of TBS on inhibitory control among nicotine dependent individuals. Participants (N=12) were scanned while performing an inhibitory control task known to elicit inhibition-related activity in the r.IFG. Using a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design, participants then received TBS over two visits: excitatory (iTBS) on one visit and inhibitory (cTBS) TBS on the other visit. The effects of each TBS condition on subsequent inhibitory control task performance were examined. A significant condition x time interaction was identified on trials requiring ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
E-cigarettes (vapes) first made headlines due to skyrocketing sales and popularity. Then reports of serious illnesses and deaths related to vaping tobacco and other substances began mounting in summer 2019. By mid-February 2020, the CDC reported more than 2,800 cases of lung injuries requiring hospitalization across all 50 states, and 68 deaths. EVALI, as this illness is now called, continues to generate questions, although emergency department visits related to vaping have been declining. Why did vaping injuries, and even deaths, seem to occur so suddenly, even though e-cigarettes have been in use for years? Why is EVALI ...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Addiction Health Lung disease Smoking cessation Source Type: blogs
In this study, we investigated the relationship between insular functions (interregional functional connectivity and regional activity) and treatment outcomes of cigarette smoking. Thirty treatment-seeking smokers were recruited into the treatment study and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans immediately before and after the treatment. Sixteen participants remained abstinent from smoking (quitters), while 14 relapsed to smoking (relapers). Changes in resting-state functional connectivity and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) across groups and visits were assessed using repeated measures...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe present study suggests that cerebellar dysfunction, in particular aberrant cerebellar-cerebral functional connectivity, might involve in neurobiological mechanism of MA dependence, which supply a potential target for therapeutic interventions in the future.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Methamphetamine use is associated with substantial adverse outcomes including poor mental and physical health, financial difficulties, and societal costs. Despite deleterious long-term consequences associated with methamphetamine, many people use drugs for short-term reduction of unpleasant physical or emotional sensations. By removing these aversive states, drug use behaviors are negatively reinforced. Abstinence from methamphetamine can then result in a return to previous aversive emotional states linked to withdrawal and craving, often contributing to an increased likelihood for relapse. This negative reinforcement cycl...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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