2016 Moon Shot for Cancer: Focus on Prevention

It is now 2016, and Americans hope for a brighter, healthier new year. Are Americans healthier today than they were last year or the year before? Will there be fewer people diagnosed with cancer? According to the American Cancer Society, it is projected that in 2016 there will be 1,685,210 new cancer cases and 595,690 deaths due to cancer. This is an increase over previous years. While it is true that the death rate for several cancers has decreased (due mostly to better screening and earlier diagnosis), it is also true that several cancers are on the rise, including cancers of the thyroid, liver, pancreas, kidney, small intestine, tongue and tonsil in both women and men. In women, the incidence of endometrial, vulvar and anal cancer is rising. In men, there is an increase in the incidence of melanoma, multiple myeloma, male breast cancer, testicular cancer and throat cancer. It is also alarming that cancer-incidence rates in children have increased steadily since 1975. Leukemia, and cancers of the brain and other nervous-system tumors are the most frequently occurring childhood malignancies. Cancer rates are strongly impacted by the rise in obesity. Unfortunately, obesity rates in America have increased over the past 10 years. Between 1999 and 2014, our nation's obesity rate rose 24 percent among children and adults. Now, more than one-third (79 million) adults in the United States are obese. Why is this a problem? The answer is that obesity increases the risk of several typ...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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AbstractAutophagy is crucial for the removal of dysfunctional organelles and protein aggregates and for maintaining stem cell homeostasis, which includes self-renewal, cell differentiation and somatic reprogramming. Loss of self-renewal capacity and pluripotency is a major obstacle to stem cell-based therapies. It has been reported that autophagy regulates stem cells under biological stimuli, starvation, hypoxia, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular senescence. On the one hand, autophagy is shown to play roles in self-renewal by co-function with the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to promote pluripote...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: 18 October 2018Source: Cell, Volume 175, Issue 3Author(s): Kaiwei Liang, Edwin R. Smith, Yuki Aoi, Kristen L. Stoltz, Hiroaki Katagi, Ashley R. Woodfin, Emily J. Rendleman, Stacy A. Marshall, David C. Murray, Lu Wang, Patrick A. Ozark, Rama K. Mishra, Rintaro Hashizume, Gary E. Schiltz, Ali ShilatifardSummaryThe super elongation complex (SEC) is required for robust and productive transcription through release of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with its P-TEFb module and promoting transcriptional processivity with its ELL2 subunit. Malfunction of SEC contributes to multiple human diseases including cancer. Here...
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: 18 October 2018Source: Cell, Volume 175, Issue 3Author(s): Vishal Singh, Beng San Yeoh, Benoit Chassaing, Xia Xiao, Piu Saha, Rodrigo Aguilera Olvera, John D. Lapek, Limin Zhang, Wei-Bei Wang, Sijie Hao, Michael D. Flythe, David J. Gonzalez, Patrice D. Cani, Jose R. Conejo-Garcia, Na Xiong, Mary J. Kennett, Bina Joe, Andrew D. Patterson, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Matam Vijay-KumarSummaryDietary soluble fibers are fermented by gut bacteria into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are considered broadly health-promoting. Accordingly, consumption of such fibers ameliorates metabolic syndrome. However, incorporati...
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: 18 October 2018Source: Cell, Volume 175, Issue 3Author(s): David A. Quigley, Ha X. Dang, Shuang G. Zhao, Paul Lloyd, Rahul Aggarwal, Joshi J. Alumkal, Adam Foye, Vishal Kothari, Marc D. Perry, Adina M. Bailey, Denise Playdle, Travis J. Barnard, Li Zhang, Jin Zhang, Jack F. Youngren, Marcin P. Cieslik, Abhijit Parolia, Tomasz M. Beer, George Thomas, Kim N. Chi
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: CellAuthor(s): Nazar Mashtalir, Andrew R. D’Avino, Brittany C. Michel, Jie Luo, Joshua Pan, Jordan E. Otto, Hayley J. Zullow, Zachary M. McKenzie, Rachel L. Kubiak, Roodolph St. Pierre, Alfredo M. Valencia, Steven J. Poynter, Seth H. Cassel, Jeffrey A. Ranish, Cigall KadochSummaryMammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes are multi-subunit molecular machines that play vital roles in regulating genomic architecture and are frequently disrupted in human cancer and developmental disorders. To date, the modular organization and pathw...
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: CellAuthor(s): Huimin Hu, Quanhua Mu, Zhaoshi Bao, Yiyun Chen, Yanwei Liu, Jing Chen, Kuanyu Wang, Zheng Wang, Yoonhee Nam, Biaobin Jiang, Jason K. Sa, Hee-Jin Cho, Nam-Gu Her, Chuanbao Zhang, Zheng Zhao, Ying Zhang, Fan Zeng, Fan Wu, Xun Kang, Yuqing LiuSummaryLow-grade gliomas almost invariably progress into secondary glioblastoma (sGBM) with limited therapeutic option and poorly understood mechanism. By studying the mutational landscape of 188 sGBMs, we find significant enrichment of TP53 mutations, somatic hypermutation, MET-exon-14-skipping (METex14),...
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: CellAuthor(s): Matthew M. Gubin, Ekaterina Esaulova, Jeffrey P. Ward, Olga N. Malkova, Daniele Runci, Pamela Wong, Takuro Noguchi, Cora D. Arthur, Wei Meng, Elise Alspach, Ruan F.V. Medrano, Catrina Fronick, Michael Fehlings, Evan W. Newell, Robert S. Fulton, Kathleen C.F. Sheehan, Stephen T. Oh, Robert D. Schreiber, Maxim N. ArtyomovSummaryAlthough current immune-checkpoint therapy (ICT) mainly targets lymphoid cells, it is associated with a broader remodeling of the tumor micro-environment. Here, using complementary forms of high-dimensional profiling, we define d...
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: CellAuthor(s): Aleksandra Wroblewska, Maxime Dhainaut, Benjamin Ben-Zvi, Samuel A. Rose, Eun Sook Park, El-Ad David Amir, Anela Bektesevic, Alessia Baccarini, Miriam Merad, Adeeb H. Rahman, Brian D. BrownSummaryCRISPR pools are being widely employed to identify gene functions. However, current technology, which utilizes DNA as barcodes, permits limited phenotyping and bulk-cell resolution. To enable novel screening capabilities, we developed a barcoding system operating at the protein level. We synthesized modules encoding triplet combinations of linear epitopes to ...
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
ConclusionsUsing a comprehensive all-payer cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients in New York State we demonstrated that patients treated in a hub-and-spoke model were not associated with worse outcomes than patients receiving care exclusively in comprehensive institutions. This needs to be taken into consideration when considering acute emergency services in this setting.
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
DISCUSSION: The routine PE of FH specimens after arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures is not warranted and uneconomic. Sending the FH for PE, only when clinically indicated, rather than routine, will result in notable savings for the healthcare system. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV. PMID: 30334845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Am Acad Orthop Surg Source Type: research
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