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2016 Moon Shot for Cancer: Focus on Prevention

It is now 2016, and Americans hope for a brighter, healthier new year. Are Americans healthier today than they were last year or the year before? Will there be fewer people diagnosed with cancer? According to the American Cancer Society, it is projected that in 2016 there will be 1,685,210 new cancer cases and 595,690 deaths due to cancer. This is an increase over previous years. While it is true that the death rate for several cancers has decreased (due mostly to better screening and earlier diagnosis), it is also true that several cancers are on the rise, including cancers of the thyroid, liver, pancreas, kidney, small intestine, tongue and tonsil in both women and men. In women, the incidence of endometrial, vulvar and anal cancer is rising. In men, there is an increase in the incidence of melanoma, multiple myeloma, male breast cancer, testicular cancer and throat cancer. It is also alarming that cancer-incidence rates in children have increased steadily since 1975. Leukemia, and cancers of the brain and other nervous-system tumors are the most frequently occurring childhood malignancies. Cancer rates are strongly impacted by the rise in obesity. Unfortunately, obesity rates in America have increased over the past 10 years. Between 1999 and 2014, our nation's obesity rate rose 24 percent among children and adults. Now, more than one-third (79 million) adults in the United States are obese. Why is this a problem? The answer is that obesity increases the risk of several typ...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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Authors: Alanazy MH, Barakeh RB, Asiri A, Edrees MF, Abuzinadah AR, Aljafen BN, Muayqil T Abstract Only a small fraction of patients with acute ischemic stroke receive intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). We sought to assess barriers and practice patterns in using IVT for acute ischemic stroke among neurologists in Saudi Arabia. An electronic survey was sent to all neurologists registered with the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties. A total of 148 (77.5%) neurologists responded. The most common reported barriers for IVT administration were delayed presentation to hospitals (82.4%) and unclear time of symptom onset ...
Source: Neurology Research International - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Int Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Similar to stroke units, inpatients in a specialised brain injury unit spend large parts of the day sedentary, alone and doing non-therapeutic activities. Strategies need to be evaluated to address this problem, particularly for people with greater physical dependence. PMID: 29667440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Brain Injury - Category: Neurology Tags: Brain Inj Source Type: research
Conclusion: This paper addresses the clinical implications of performing numerous CT examinations in patients with cancer, providing clinicians with information regarding methods to reduce risk factors in this patient population.Blood Purif 2018;46:56 –69
Source: Blood Purification - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
Conclusions: RDLs are frequently observed in high-risk patients for gastric cancer after eradication. M-NBI demonstrated significantly superior diagnostic efficacy with respect to RDL.Digestion 2018;98:48 –55
Source: Digestion - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
This study showed that ESE-16 exposure leads to the aggregation of acidic vesicles, identified as lysosomes, not accompanied by an induction of autophagy. Therefore, ESE-16 disrupts normal endocytic vesicle maturation likely through the inhibition of the microtubule function.Pharmacology 2018;102:9 –16
Source: Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that viral-based immunotherapy has the potential to overcome resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and to fill the unmet needs of many cancer patients. Poxviruses, such as modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), have the potential as cancer immunotherapeutic agents. We recently showed that intratumoral (IT) delivery of inactivated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (iMVA) induces antitumor systemic immunity via the STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and Batf3 –dependent CD103+/CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs).
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Adaptive and Auto-Immunity Source Type: research
MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) has recently been shown to regulate anti-tumor immune responses. However, its specific functions within distinct immune cell types during this process have not been delineated utilizing conditional knockout mouse models. In recently published work, we discovered a role for miR-155 expression within the T cell compartment during the immune response to syngeneic B16f10 mouse melanoma tumors. We found that miR-155 expression within T cells is required to limit syngeneic tumor growth and promote interferon gamma (IFN γ) production within the tumor microenvironment.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Adaptive and Auto-Immunity Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the role of Bregs in tumor immunity. We used B cell-specific phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient mice and B16F10 melanoma cells, which were subcutaneously injected into mice.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Adaptive and Auto-Immunity Source Type: research
Introduction: Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is an idiopathic, chronic granulomatous disease linked to diabetes mellitus (DM). We aim to identify comorbidities and complications of NL. Methods: A retrospective study was performed within Mayo Clinic from 1992 to 2017. 328 cases were identified using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code diagnosis of NL and a clinical diagnosis of NL by a dermatologist or histopathological diagnosis consistent with NL. A chart review recorded lifestyle, comorbidities, and complications.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Clinical Research: Epidemiology of Skin Diseases Source Type: research
Patients with high-frequency non-syndromic basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) have not been systematically studied in the US due to lack of national registries. Previous studies have focused on risk factors for developing multiple BCCs, defined as ≥2 BCCs, but few have evaluated patients with high-frequency BCCs. This retrospective study of a commercially insured US population within the Truven MarketScan database from 2012-2015 defines high-frequency BCCs (non-basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS)) as developing 12-19 BCCs within 4 years.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Clinical Research: Epidemiology of Skin Diseases Source Type: research
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