From Rubella to Zika: pregnancy, disability, abortion | Salim Al-Gailani

Current concerns about Zika and microcephaly recall similar anxieties about maternal infection with Rubella in the 1940s, ’50s and ’60s. Salim Al-Gailani explains what we can learn by comparing the two diseases. It’s early spring in London. Some of Britain’s leading medical researchers have convened to discuss alarming new evidence linking a virus long presumed to be harmless with a spate of defects in newborn babies. It’s not 2016, it’s 1946, and the disease is not Zika, but German Measles, or Rubella. For most patients Rubella produces only a minor rash and fever. But when contracted by women during early pregnancy, the virus may result in miscarriage, infant death, or a range of often life-shaping disabilities, such as deafblindness. Increased awareness of the risk of maternal rubella in the mid-twentieth century, partly through vivid reports on the ‘crippling’ effects of this disease in the international media, had profound consequences including the development of highly successful mass immunization programmes. Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Science History of science Health Zika virus World news Source Type: news

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Source: BMJ - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical GastroenterologyAuthor(s): Maria Guarino, Valentina Cossiga, Filomena MoriscoAbstractAbnormal liver tests occur in 3-5% of pregnancies and show many different causes. Although alterations of liver enzymes could be a physiological phenomenon, it may also reflect potential severe liver injury, necessitating further assessment and accurate management. The work-up has to consider liver diseases specific of pregnancy and non pregnancy-related liver damage (coincidental and pre-existing to pregnancy).Pre-existing liver diseases during...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that, although persons with disabilities can exhibit a wide functional range, they remain at risk of PUs and should be evaluated for proper preventive measures, including support surfaces and wheelchair cushions.
Source: Advances in Skin and Wound Care - Category: Dermatology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Source Type: research
We examined the current studies on the efficiency and effectiveness of the robot interventions and produced a taxonomy of the review. An original finding of the current robotics in rehabilitation landscaping are critical presented with recommendations and concluding remarks concerning interdisciplinary impact. PMID: 32067201 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Drawing on advances in chronic pain metrics, a simplified Graded Chronic Pain Scale-Revised was developed to differentiate mild, bothersome, and high-impact chronic pain. Graded Chronic Pain Scale-Revised was validated among adult enrollees of 2 health plans (N = 2021). In this population, the prevalence of chronic pain (pain present most or every day, prior 3 months) was 40.5%: 15.4% with mild chronic pain (lower pain intensity and interference); 10.1% bothersome chronic pain (moderate to severe pain intensity with lower interference with life activities); and 15.0% high-impact chronic pain (sustained pain-related activit...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
This study addresses the problem of long-term opioid use by chronic pain patients. The study involved a secondary analysis of unanalyzed data from a published study of 2 versions of cognitive-behavioural therapy-based interdisciplinary treatment for chronic pain. In this study, we examined whether the use of opioids by 140 chronic pain patients could be ceased sustainably over 12 months after participation in the comprehensive interdisciplinary pain management program aimed at enhancing pain self-management. On admission to the treatment, there were no significant differences between those patients taking or not taking opi...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Clinical Note Source Type: research
Pain-related fear is typically associated with avoidance behavior and pain-related disability in youth with chronic pain. Youth with elevated pain-related fear have attenuated treatment responses; thus, targeted treatment is highly warranted. Evidence supporting graded in vivo exposure treatment (GET) for adults with chronic pain is considerable, but just emerging for youth. The current investigation represents the first sequential replicated and randomized single-case experimental phase design with multiple measures evaluating GET for youth with chronic pain, entitled GET Living. A cohort of 27 youth (81% female) with mix...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
ConclusionsThese survey results suggest that the PLLR format was not known by a majority of prescribers and that the pregnancy letter category format is continuing to be used despite significant flaws in the old system. However, the survey did not address why prescribers were continuing to rely on the pregnancy letter category system. Whether this is due to the PLLR format itself or the lack of quality data to inform the safe use of medications in pregnancy cannot be determined from these survey results. FDA will use these survey results to refine the communication of pregnancy safety information in labeling and will expan...
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Li J, Shao D, Xu X, Zhang Y, Jiang Y, Hall J Abstract Background: Pregnancy is a normal physiological process, but a stressful life event. The impact of maternal psychological stress during the pregnancy could lead to adverse health outcomes for both mother and child. However, few studies have explored the effectiveness of stress management strategy among pregnant women.Objectives/Aims/Hypotheses: To examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior stress management for pregnant women.Design: Randomized Controlled Trial.Methods: 100 pregnant women (at 6 to 8 week of their pregnancy) were selected from the a...
Source: Contemporary Nurse - Category: Nursing Tags: Contemp Nurse Source Type: research
Conclusion: Self-management behaviors and HrQoL of CHD patients in Chinese communities were inadequate. There is a positive correlation between self-management behaviors and HrQoL among CHD patients in Chinese community settings. Therefore, it is critical to improve self-management behaviors and HrQoL of CHD patients in Chinese communities.Impact statement: Self-management behaviors were found to positively influence on HrQoL among CHD patients in Chinese community settings. It is necessary to develop the nursing intervention on self-management behaviors to enhance the HrQoL of CHD patients in Chinese communities. PMID...
Source: Contemporary Nurse - Category: Nursing Tags: Contemp Nurse Source Type: research
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