Medical News Today: Nerve damage in MS could be prevented with epilepsy drug

An epilepsy drug - phenytoin - reduced nerve damage by 30% in people with optic neuritis, a new study found, bringing us closer to a neuroprotective drug for multiple sclerosis.
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Multiple Sclerosis Source Type: news

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Abstract 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) is an enzyme involved in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, a metabolic pathway in which cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are the resultant metabolites. Both ALOX5 and CysLTs are clinically significant in a number of inflammatory diseases, such as in asthma and allergic rhinitis, and drugs antagonizing the effect of these molecules have long been successfully used to counter these diseases. Interestingly, recent advances in 'neuroinflammation' research has led to the discovery of several novel inflammatory pathways regulating many cerebral pathologies, including the ALOX5 pathway. By ...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research
Conclusions: Preliminary literature suggests that FMT may be a promising treatment option for several neurological disorders. However, available evidence is still scanty and some contrasting results were observed. A limited number of studies in humans have been performed or are ongoing, while for some disorders only animal experiments have been conducted. Large double-blinded randomized controlled trials are needed to further elucidate the effect of FMT in neurological disorders.
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Being diagnosed with any number of neurological diseases can be scary, not only due to the progressive nature of many of these conditions, but also because they often cannot be detected until their later stages of progression. Following the failu...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Exclusive Neurology Ophthalmology Source Type: blogs
It’s not often that a person growing up among the cotton fields of southwest Oklahoma goes on to become a successful manager of global technology companies, but Leland White is not your average person. During his career, he built and managed semiconductor manufacturing plants around the world and provided management consulting services to large corporations and federal agencies. After a successful business career, he retired in Colorado to pursue two passions: downhill skiing and high-performance driving. Referred to by family and friends as “Lee,” he turned 78 last spring. I talked to Lee about the chall...
Source: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Press Releases - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Tags: Health Care Slider Speech-Language Pathology Dysphagia Swallowing Disorders Source Type: blogs
NeuroPace is spicing up the neuromodulation market a bit with a new nod from FDA for MRI labeling for the RNS system. The Mountain View, CA-based company’s RNS System treats patients living with seizures that do not respond to medication and first landed a PMA in November of 2013. In a release, the company said individuals with focal onset seizures that also have brain anomalies that require monitoring, such as tuberous sclerosis, brain tumors or multiple sclerosis, as well as those with non-brain MRI requirements, can now be offered the RNS System as a treatment option. The company added this will also a...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Business Regulatory and Compliance Source Type: news
Abstract Following the formulation of operational criteria for the diagnosis of psychosis in Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder, the past decade has seen increasing interest in such nonmotor psychopathology that appears to be independent of dopaminergic therapy. Similarly, there has been a resurgence of interest in motor aspects of the neurodevelopmental disorder of schizophrenia, including spontaneous parkinsonism that appears to be independent of antipsychotic treatment. This review first addresses the clinical and nosological challenges of these superficially paradoxical insights and then conside...
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharmacol Sin Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of reviewEye tracking is a powerful method to investigate the relationship between behavior and neural mechanisms. In recent years, eye movement analysis has been used in patients with neurological disorders to assess cognitive function. In this review, we explore the latest eye tracking researches in neurological disorders that are commonly associated with cognitive deficits, specifically, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and epilepsy. We focus on the application of ocular measures in these disorders, with the goa...
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Medicinal cannabinoid use continues to evolve across the United States, although legitimate federal recognition for medicinal purpose is lacking. Variability exists across states within the United States with respect to legislation, and health care institutions encounter challenges when patients present with a history of medicinal cannabinoid use. Emerging evidence in the field of neurosciences suggests a role of cannabinoids for neurologic medical conditions such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. We aim to provide an overview of cannabinoids including a historical perspective, pharmacology, applicati...
Source: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly - Category: Nursing Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Abstract The endocannabinoid system participates in the regulation of CNS homeostasis and functions, including neurotransmission, cell signaling, inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as neuronal and glial cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival. Endocannabinoids are produced by multiple cell types within the CNS and their main receptors, CB1 and CB2, are expressed in both neurons and glia. Signaling through these receptors is implicated in the modulation of neuronal and glial alterations in neuroinflammatory, neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research
This study aimed to compare 23Na T2∗ relaxation times to more established measures of tissue microstructure derived from advanced diffusion MRI at 7 T. Six healthy volunteers were scanned using a 3D multi-echo radial ultra-short TE sequence using a dual-tuned 1H/23Na birdcage coil, and a high-resolution multi-shell, high angular resolution diffusion imaging sequence using a 32-channel 1H receive coil. 23Na T2∗ relaxation parameters [mean T2∗ (T2∗mean) and fast relaxation fraction (T2∗ff)] were calculated from a voxel-wise continuous gamma distribution signal model. White matter (restric...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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