Probable Nootropic-induced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

Conclusion Healthcare providers in general, and specifically those in the mental health and substance abuse fields, should keep in mind that nootropic use is an under recognized and evolving problem. Nootropic use should be considered in cases where there are sudden or unexplained exacerbations of psychiatric symptoms in patients who have been stable and medication adherent. It is also important to remember that most nootropics are not detected on standard drug toxicology screening tests. We have very little clinical information on how nootropics may interact with psychotropics (or other medications) and potentially cause adverse physical and psychiatric side effects. Finally, because nootropics are often obtained via loosely regulated sources, such as online vendors, it is possible that other psychoactive compounds are substituted for the advertised nootropics. Young adults, especially those with a history of mental health or substance use disorders, may be at particular risk of adverse effects from use of nootropics and should be educated about the potential for harm from misuse of nootropics. References 1. Nishizaki T, Matsuoka T, Nomura T, et al. A long-term, potentiation-like facilitation of hippocampal synaptic transmission induced by the nootropic nefiracetam. Brain Res. 1999;826:281–288. 2. Turner DC, Robbins TW, Clark L, et al. Cognitive enhancing effects of modafinil in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology. 2003;165(3):260–269. 3. Turner DC, Clark L, D...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Case Series and Literature Review Current Issue Mental Disorders Psychiatry Psychopharmacology Substance Use Disorders Ampakines Armodafinil brain enhancer Cerebrolysin Citicoline cognitive enhancer homeopathic medicine natural r Source Type: research

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ConclusionCBS contains analogous types and amounts of constituents and exerts approximate therapeutic effects compared to the NCB, thus the CBS might be used as the sustainable substitute of NCB. Furthermore, configuration and concentration of bile acids and bilirubin in C. bovis are responsible for the difference of pharmacological effects in four types C. bovis. The next study should focus on the structure-function relationship of bile acids and bilirubin in C. bovis by pharmacokinetics.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsNIR fluorescence imaging with ICG for identifying sympathetic ganglions is relatively safe and feasible.
Source: Thoracic Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Anaesthesia Critical Care &Pain MedicineAuthor(s): Audrey De Jong, Amélie Rollé, François-Régis Souche, Olfa Yengui, Daniel Verzilli, Gérald Chanques, David Nocca, Emmanuel Futier, Samir JaberAbstractThe obese patient is at risk of perioperative complications including difficult airway access (intubation, difficult or impossible ventilation), and postextubation acute respiratory failure due to the formation of atelectases or to airway obstruction. The association of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA) with obesity is very ...
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Materials LettersAuthor(s): Heng Li, Cheng-wei Wu, Sen Wang, Wei ZhangAbstractThe macroporous, high porosity and mechanically strong poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels were developed using agarose (AG) as the pore inducing agent. The AG not only incurs the formation of macropores by promoting the nucleation and growth of ice particles, but also strengthens the mechanical properties by increasing the crystallinity of PVA and the inter-molecular hydrogen bonds. The in vitro cell experiments imply that the obtained PVA hydrogels is cytocompatible and the chondrocyte...
Source: Materials Letters - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
ConclusionsOverall, our results demonstrated that abnormalities of FC in perception systems including intrinsic visual and auditory networks may explain neurobiological mechanisms underlying MDD and could serve as a potential effective biomarker.
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In this study, we systematically reviewed studies that used 3 Tesla 1H-MRS to investigate neurometabolite concentrations in OCD patients versus healthy controls. We also reviewed associations between neurometabolite concentrations and symptom severity and the effect of treatment. Out of the 1161 articles that were identified by our literature search, 22 articles met our inclusion criteria for this review. Most studies did not demonstrate any neurometabolite abnormalities in OCD patients compared with controls, but some mixed results were found depending on the region of interest. The most consistent findings showed lower g...
Source: Journal of Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Filip Kosel, Jessica M.S. Pelley, Tamara B. FranklinAbstractTransgenic mouse models have been used extensively to model the cognitive impairments arising from Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related pathology. However, less is known about the relationship between AD-related pathology and the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) commonly presented by patients. This review discusses the BPSD-like behaviours recapitulated by several mouse models of AD-related pathology, including the APP/PS1, Tg2576...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Helena Palma-Gudiel, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Víctor Navarro, Lourdes FañanásAbstractMonozygotic (MZ) twin studies constitute a key resource for the dissection of environmental and biological risk factors for human complex disorders. Given that epigenetic differences accumulate throughout the lifespan, the assessment of MZ twin pairs discordant for depression offers a genetically informative design to explore DNA methylation while accounting for the typical confounders of the field, shared ...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the potential roles of Nogo-A/Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) in autophagic activation in the ipsilateral thalamus after cerebral infarction. Focal neocortical infarction was established using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. Secondary damage in the ipsilateral thalamus was assessed by Nissl staining and immunostaining. The expression of Nogo-A, NgR1, Rho-A and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) as well as autophagic flux were evaluated by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. The roles of Nogo-A-NgR1 signaling in autophagic activation were determine...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Xie X, Li T Abstract Objective: We investigated the risk of ischaemic stroke in patients with 1 another stroke risk factor (i.e. CHA2DS2-VASc score =1 [males] or 2 [females]) and the impact of different component risk factors.Methods: Database were collected from two hospitals in the city of Hohhot in china. Among 3148 Nonvalvular AF patients not on antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, we evaluated males with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 1 and females with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2. The clinical endpoint was the occurrence of ischaemic stroke.Results: Among 546 AF male patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc scor...
Source: Acta Cardiologica - Category: Cardiology Tags: Acta Cardiol Source Type: research
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