This month’s most missed USMLE question--and the right answer

As you prepare for the United States Medical Licensing Exam® (USMLE®), do you know which questions to look out for? We’re giving you an exclusive scoop on the most challenging USMLE test prep questions and expert strategies to help you beat them. Find out what this month’s toughest question is and receive an expert video explanation of the answer from Kaplan Medical. Welcome to the third post in AMA Wire’s® series, “Tutor talk: Tips from Kaplan Medical on the most missed USMLE test prep questions.” Each month, we’re revealing one of the top questions students miss, a helpful analysis of answers and a video featuring tips on how to advance your test-taking strategies. This month’s question explores pathology and cardiovascular topics. Ready. Set. Go. This month’s question that stumped most students: A 72-year-old obese woman collapses and is brought to the emergency department. She flew from California to New York three days earlier. She has smoked a pack of cigarettes daily for 50 years. During physical examination, she is unable to respond to questions or follow instructions. Three days later, she becomes hypotensive and dies. Autopsy shows multiple loosely adherent clots within the distal branching arteries of the left middle cerebral artery and in the vertebrobasilar system. Which of the following pathologic conditions would most likely account for the neurologic findings in this pati...
Source: AMA Wire - Category: Journals (General) Authors: Source Type: news

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In this study, we have systematically reviewed the relationships between KS and the cardiovascular system and the management of cardiovascular complication. In summary, patients with KS display increased cardiovascular risk profile, characterized by increased prevalence of metabolic alterations including dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), and abnormalities in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. KS subjects are characterized by subclinical abnormalities in endothelial function and in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, which - when associated with chronotropic incompetence - may negatively influence ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: Advances in Biological RegulationAuthor(s): Alice Domenichini, Jeanne S. Edmands, Aleksandra Adamska, Romana-Rea Begicevic, Silvano Paternoster, Marco FalascaAbstractCancer stem cells are a population of slow-cycling cells within the tumour bulk, with self-renewal capacity that attract interest as a therapeutic target. In highly heterogeneous tumours, like pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) however, the characterisation of cancer stem cells has led to controversial results due to the lack of consensus on specific markers. Here we investigated the characteristi...
Source: Advances in Biological Regulation - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Elham Gholibegloo, Tohid Mortezazadeh, Fatemeh Salehian, Ali Ramazani, Massoud Amanlou, Mehdi KhoobiAbstractA novel β-cyclodextrin-based nanosponge (CDNS) was proposed as curcumin (CUR) delivery system improving pharmacokinetics and anticancer activity of CUR. The effect of molar ratio of Epiclon (EPI) as cross-linker and β-cyclodextrin (βCD) on the porosity, surface area, swelling ratio, CUR solubility and loading capacity, rate of drug release and selective toxicity of the CDNSs was fully investigated. The high degre...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General SubjectsAuthor(s): Mojtaba Falahati, Farnoosh Attar, Majid Sharifi, Thomas Haertlé, Jean-François Berret, Rizwan Hasan Khan, Ali Akbar SabouryAbstractNanoparticle (NP)–protein complexes exhibit the “correct identity” of NP in biological media. Therefore, protein–NP interactions should be closely explored to understand and to modulate the nature of NPs in medical implementations. This review focuses mainly on the physicochemical parameters such as dimension, surface chemistry, the mo...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 May 2019Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 287Author(s): Yongfei Huang, Yongbin Zhang, Fangjun Huo, Jianbin Chao, Caixia YinAbstractThe reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hypochlorous acid (HOCl), on the one hand they can regulate physiological function in our living organisms, on the other hand abnormal concentration of ROS would induce a series of biomacromolecules damage and further endanger virtually all aspects of human health. Especially it can be directly related to cancer. Thus to elucidate and visualize their concentration is very imminent. Before many fluorescent probes we...
Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: May 2019Source: Microchemical Journal, Volume 146Author(s): Chandra Shekhar Pundir, Mansi Malik, Reeti ChaudharyAbstractPyruvate (carboxylate anion of pyruvic acid) is an organic molecule, with a backbone of 3‑carbon atoms. Pyruvate is known to undergo several fates depending upon the organism under consideration. It is one of the only molecules involved in both synthesis and breakdown pathways, thereby making it a very busy molecule. Aberrant levels of this metabolite are known to cause several disorders like diabetes, cirrhosis, cardiovascular diseases and severe brain abnormalities. This is an attrac...
Source: Microchemical Journal - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Abstract Although cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer, genetic susceptibility may also affect lung cancer risk. To explore the role of genetic risk, this case-control study investigated the association between family history of cancer at several sites and lung cancer risk. A total of 1,733 lung cancer cases and 6,643 controls were selected from patients aged 30 years and over admitted to a single hospital in Japan between 1997 and 2009. Information on family history of cancer was collected using a self-administered questionnaire and odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by unconditional logistic re...
Source: The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Tohoku J Exp Med Source Type: research
I’m 37 and I have incurable bowel cancer. It’s spread to my liver and lungs. I was diagnosed three years ago, I have just an 8% chance of being alive in 2021.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: European UrologyAuthor(s): Renate Pichler, Isabel Heidegger
Source: European Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe EAU Prostate Cancer Centre Consensus Meeting defined the criteria for the identification of the EPCCE in the fields of clinics, research, and education. The inclusion of a quality control approach represents the novelty that supports the excellence of these centres.Patient summaryA task force of experts defined the criteria for the identification of European Prostate Cancer Centres of Excellence, in order to certify the high-quality centres for prostate cancer management.
Source: European Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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