Harnessing the Power of Big Data in Biological Research

From the dawn of civilization to 2003, humankind generated five exabytes [5 billion gigabytes] of data. Now we produce five exabytes every two days ... and the pace is accelerating. —Eric Schmidt, executive chairman at Google, quoted in R. Smolan and J. Erwitt, eds. 2012. The Human Face of Big Data. Against All Odds Productions. A data revolution is changing the face of science. Scientists are confronting research challenges that require the analysis of large amounts of information on topics ranging from global climate patterns to genetic blueprints. These big data challenges are often summarized in four words: volume, variety, velocity, and veracity. Managing these four parameters could unlock revolutionary new applications, tap the potential of crowdsourcing, and produce a new way of doing science. Scientists struggle to capture, curate, share, analyze, and visualize continuously generated data. In March 2012, the White House announced the Big Data Research and Development Initiative, committing more than $200 million to accelerate scientific discovery, strengthen national security, and transform education. Six federal departments and agencies are participating in the initiative. In addition, the Obama administration released the Open Data Policy, promising to make information generated by the federal government—including health care data (e.g., the Health Data Initiative)—more accessible to innovators, researchers, and the public. Genetic research ...
Source: Washington Watch - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of LipidsAuthor(s): Zhen Wang, Hui Gyu Park, Dong Hao Wang, Riki Kitano, Kumar S.D. Kothapalli, J. Thomas BrennaAbstractBranched chain fatty acids (BCFA) and linear chain/normal odd chain fatty acids (n-OCFA) are major fatty acids in human skin lipids, especially sebaceous gland (SG) wax esters. Skin lipids contain variable amounts of monounsaturated BCFA and n-OCFA, in some reports exceeding over 20% of total fatty acids. Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) codes for a multifunctional enzyme that catalyz...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
This study evaluated outcomes associated with treatment strategies for this nonagenarian population.MethodsTreatment and overall survival for patients 90 years and older with NSCLC in the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2014) were evaluated using logistic regression, the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models.ResultsThe majority (n = 4152, 57.6%) of the 7205 patients 90 years or older with stage I-IV NSCLC did not receive any therapy. For the entire cohort, receiving treatment was associated with significantly better survival when compared with no therapy (5-year survival, 9.3% [95% confidenc...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe delay in surgical resection of StageIIIa NSCLC is not associated increased early mortality, however it is associated with worse 3-year post-resection survival.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
In conclusion, data presented in the current study suggest that tobacco smoking might cause alveolar tissue inflammation and vascular injury causing an immune response that elevates the white blood cells count. Another suggestion is that tobacco smoking defects the pulmonary gaseous exchange mechanism leading to the secondary polycythemia indicated by the increase in red blood cell count, hemoglobin levels, hematocrit and by the low serum erythropoietin levels.
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In this study, we report that the dietary isoflavone genistein (GN) synergistically improved antineoplasticity of CC in breast cancer by arresting cells at G2/M phase culminating in ROS dependent apoptosis. The combination of CC plus GN caused dysregulation of Bax and Bcl-2 ratio inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of Caspase-3/7, -9 and PARP cleavage. Further, combination significantly suppresses phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB, enhancing apoptosis. Additionally, combination markedly reduced tumor growth compared to CC and GN alone in mouse 4T1 breast tumor model.SignificanceTogether, these studies sugg...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Kosar Babaei, Shima Shams, Arman Keymoradzadeh, Sogand Vahidi, Parisa Hamami, Roya Khaksar, Seyedeh Elham Norollahi, Ali Akbar SamadaniAbstractImportance of dysregulation and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been confiemed in many disorders comprising cancer. In this way, different approaches to induce reprogramming from one cell type to another in oerder to control the cell normal mechanisem, comprising microRNAs, combinatorial small molecules, exosome-mediated reprogramming, embryonic microenvironment and also lineage-specific transcri...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Many of the techniques introduced those years are still in use. PMID: 31738660 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Chirurgica Belgica - Category: Surgery Tags: Acta Chir Belg Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering AspectsAuthor(s): Juan Liao, Siyu Peng, Mei Long, Yaya Zhang, Huaming Yang, Yi Zhang, Jing HuangAbstractNatural halloysite clay nanotubes (halloysite nanotubes, HNTs) are potentially used in colon cancer therapy owing to their excellent physicochemical properties. However, the size-dependent interaction between HNTs and colon cancer cells is still an unresolved challenge. Herein, we analyzed the interfacial interactions between HNTs and colon cancer cells, and evaluated the size-dependent biological effects o...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Chemical Engineering JournalAuthor(s): Kai Chen, Shuangsi Liao, Shiwei Guo, Xiuli Zheng, Bing Wang, Zhenyu Duan, Hu Zhang, Qiyong Gong, Kui LuoAbstractBiocompatible, stimuli-responsive, intelligent and efficient drug delivery systems are essential for effectively suppressing cancer and reducing toxic side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. Herein, two strategies have been employed to develop a N-(1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl) methacrylamide (DHPMA)-derived polymer carrier for doxorubicin (DOX) with a long circulation time: increasing molecular weight (MW) of the DHPMA ...
Source: Chemical Engineering Journal - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
New J. Chem., 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9NJ04763H, PaperDawei Jiang, Tao Yue, Guicheng Wang, Chaochao Wang, Chao Chen, Hongliang Cao, Yun Gao Due to biological safety and negligible toxicity, nitric oxide (NO) therapy has gained increasing interest in the field of cancer therapy during past few years. However, individual NO cancer therapy... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
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