Current drug therapy and pharmaceutical challenges for chagas disease.

CURRENT DRUG THERAPY AND PHARMACEUTICAL CHALLENGES FOR CHAGAS DISEASE. Acta Trop. 2015 Dec 30; Authors: Bermudez J, Davies C, Simonazzi A, Pablo Real J, Palma S Abstract One of the most significant health problems in the American continent in terms of human health, and socioeconomic impact is Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Infection was originally transmitted by reduviid insects, congenitally from mother to fetus, and by oral ingestion in sylvatic/rural environments, but blood transfusions, organ transplants, laboratory accidents, and sharing of contaminated syringes also contribute to modern day transmission. Likewise, Chagas disease used to be endemic from Northern Mexico to Argentina, but migrations have earned it global. The parasite has a complex life cycle, infecting different species, and invading a variety of cells -including muscle and nerve cells of the heart and gastrointestinal tract- in the mammalian host. Human infection outcome is a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy, and gastrointestinal tract lesions. In absence of a vaccine, vector control and treatment of patients are the only tools to control the disease. Unfortunately, the only drugs now available for Chagas' disease, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole, are relatively toxic for adult patients, and require prolonged administration. Benznidazole is the first choice for Chagas disease treatment due to its lower side effects than Nifurtimox. However, different...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

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Authors: Lizardo K, Ayyappan JP, Ganapathi U, Dutra WO, Qiu Y, Weiss LM, Nagajyothi JF Abstract Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi which is endemic in Latin America. T. cruzi infection results in a latent infection with approximately a third of latently infected patients developing chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCM). CCM is a common cause of cardiomyopathy in endemic regions and has a poor prognosis compared to other cardiomyopathies. The factors responsible for the transition from the asymptomatic indeterminate latent stage of infection to CCM are poorly understood. Our previous studies demonstrated th...
Source: Disease Markers - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Dis Markers Source Type: research
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of Institutional Review Board of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil (approval number 693.111). Human Blood Samples and Preparation of Peripheral Blood Cells Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated from heparinized venous blood by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient centrifugation. Cells were then washed in ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC, approval FUA-007-14) from the Unidad de Biología Comparativa (UBA) at Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (PUJ, Bogotá, Colombia). All animal studies were conducted in accordance with the “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” from UBA-PUJ. The present study was described according to the Animal Research: Reporting in vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) criteria from the National Center for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) (32). Mice ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: We suggest some distinct molecular mechanisms for production of IL-1β in innate immune cells from patients with different clinical forms of Chagas disease. MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinases are associated with distinct disease outcomes and IL-1β production. Introduction Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a neglected parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (1), that affects millions of people in the world (2). During the acute phase, a diffuse and intense inflammation in the cardiomyocytes is observed, which is composed mainly of neutrophils, monocytes, and ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
American trypanosomiasis is caused by a parasite endemic of the Americas. Current migration has globalized Chagas disease. Acute infection usually resolves spontaneously. Nonetheless, 20% to 40% develop cardiomyopathy 20 to 30  years later. Progression to cardiomyopathy is devastatingly rapid, manifesting with heart failure and sudden death. Etiologic treatment is highly effective and recommended in those with acute infections, congenital infections, and parasite reactivation, and women of childbearing age, but in asympt omatic Trypanosoma cruzi carriers and patients with early cardiomyopathy remains controversial and...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
We describe the rare case of a patient with VL, who developed severe AKI requiring dialysis and was subsequently diagnosed with Chagas disease coinfection. After specific treatment for VL, there was partial recovery of the renal function, followed by the onset of Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. PMID: 30462796 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChagas disease (CD) is endemic to much of Latin America, but also present in the United States (U.S.). Following a lengthy asymptomatic period, CD produces serious cardiac or gastrointestinal complications in 30 –40% of people. Less than 1% of the estimated six million cases in the Americas, including 326,000–347,000 in the U.S., are diagnosed. Infected persons are typically unaware and the bulk of clinicians are unfamiliar with current treatment guidelines. This review provides U.S. and other clinician s with the latest knowledge of CD treatment.Recent FindingsChagas cardiomyopathy (CC...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
AbstractChagas disease is caused by a parasite infection endemic of the Americas. Traditionally observed in rural areas of Latin America, current migration trends have turned Chagas disease into a global epidemic. Acute infection is rarely severe and once it resolves, some patients can develop cardiomyopathy as part of the chronic form many years later. Multiple factors related with both the host and the parasite determine the susceptibility and progression to cardiomyopathy. Current imaging techniques are able to identify cardiac autonomic denervation, perfusion abnormalities, and myocardial fibrosis at an early of stage ...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChagas disease (CD) is endemic to much of Latin America, but also present in the United States (U.S.). Following a lengthy asymptomatic period, CD produces serious cardiac or gastrointestinal complications in 30 –40% of people. Less than 1% of the estimated six million cases in the Americas, including 326,000–347,000 in the U.S., are diagnosed. Infected persons are typically unaware and the bulk of clinicians are unfamiliar with current treatment guidelines. This review provides U.S. and other clinician s with the latest knowledge of CD treatment.Recent FindingsChagas cardiomyopathy (CC...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest no significant contribution of the analysed gene variants of cytokine-related molecules to development/severity of Chagas' heart disease, reinforcing the idea that parasite/host interplay is critical to CD outcomes. PMID: 29768622 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research
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