Multiplexed Neurochemical Signaling by Neurons of the Ventral Tegmental Area

Publication date: Available online 4 January 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): David J. Barker, David H. Root, Shiliang Zhang, Marisela Morales The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is an evolutionarily conserved structure that has roles in reward-seeking, safety-seeking, learning, motivation, and neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction and depression. The involvement of the VTA in these various behaviors and disorders is paralleled by its diverse signaling mechanisms. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of neuronal diversity in the VTA with a focus on cell phenotypes that participate in ‘multiplexed’ neurotransmission involving distinct signaling mechanisms. First, we describe the cellular diversity within the VTA, including neurons capable of transmitting dopamine, glutamate or GABA as well as neurons capable of multiplexing combinations of these neurotransmitters. Next, we describe the complex synaptic architecture used by VTA neurons in order to accommodate the transmission of multiple transmitters. We specifically cover recent findings showing that VTA multiplexed neurotransmission may be mediated by either the segregation of dopamine and glutamate into distinct microdomains within a single axon or by the integration of glutamate and GABA into a single axon terminal. In addition, we discuss our current understanding of the functional role that these multiplexed signaling pathways have in the lateral habenula and the...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was studied from the 1950s to the 1970s to evaluate behavioral and personality changes, as well as remission of psychiatric symptoms in various disorders. LSD was used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, psychosomatic diseases and addiction. However, most of the studies were not performed under contemporary standards, and it has taken several decades for a resurgence of interest in LSD research and its therapeutic potential for psychiatry. The aim of this review is to identify controlled and randomized clinical trials that assess the potential use of LSD in psychiatry. PRISMA guideline...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In this study, we discovered that chronic alcohol treatment increased editing of RNA of 5-HT2CR via up-regulating the expression of ADAR2, consequently reducing the release of ATP from astrocytes induced by 5-HT2CR agonist, MK212. Moreover, SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine decreased the expression of ADAR2 through the transactivation of EGFR/PI3K/AKT/cFos signalling pathway. The increased release of astroglial ATP by MK212 which was suppressed by chronic alcohol consumption, and reduction in ADAR2 activity eliminated the RNA editing of 5-HT2CR increased by alcohol in vitro and recovered the release of ATP from astrocytes ind...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
This article includes references to self-injury, intravenous drug use and disordered eating.* One in five US high school students have reported being bullied. Approximately 160,000 teenagers have skipped school as a preventative measure. I encountered bullies for the first time in second grade, in the midst of such an innocent time of my youth. I dreaded entering my elementary school classroom, as I was well aware of what my presence would entail. I endured both verbal and physical harassment from my fellow peers for nearly a decade. I was passive, inevitably leading to the acceptance of my “fate,” in addition ...
Source: Psych Central - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Addictions Anorexia Bullying Depression Eating Disorders Personal Stories Substance Abuse Addiction Recovery Anorexia Nervosa Drug Use heroin Self Harm Self Injury Source Type: news
  Have you ever been so pissed off, in a state of absolute rage, and said or done something you completely regret later? Many people living with bipolar disorder understand this feeling all too well: At the time, you feel so righteous, so fueled with this powerful Hercules-like energy, so ready to take on your enemy (or the world), only to think later… What in the world was that all about? Yep, in these moments, the angry response tends to far outweigh the initial trigger. In this episode, Gabe and Jackie discuss the blind rage that many people have experienced. They talk about how to deal with it and how it&r...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Anger Bipolar Disorders General Not Crazy Podcast Source Type: blogs
iths Occupational stress and high workload are being increasingly recognized as significant contributors to the diseases and disorders constituting major components of the global burden of disease. A more detailed definition of burn-out was recently included by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) which reflects a growing acknowledgment of the role of professional work in mental health. One of the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder/anankastic personality disorder (OCPD/APD) is an undue preoccupation with productivity to ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research
Awaken Joy, LLC, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, Fairbanks, AK, 99709 | Psychology Today Awaken Joy, LLC, Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, Fairbanks, AK, 99709, Thank you for your interest. Susana ("Sana") Donofry is a psychiatric nurse practitioner. She prescribes medicine for ADHD and mental health issues like depression, anxiety, and addiction. She accepts most insurance plans... www.psychologytoday.com I was looking at psych profiles in the 20 or so states that allow nurse practitioners to practice independently, it was surprising to s...
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Psychiatry Source Type: forums
I am continually amused by the claims of Trumpistas that the U.S. is experiencing an economic resurgence and utopia, for which of course the vulgarian in chief deserves all the credit. Joseph Stiglitz, who unlike them and me has won a Nobel Memorial Prize in economics (it's not a real Nobel prize, economists added it later because they wanted one too)knows otherwise.This is a fairly dense essay which it's difficult to summarize without quoting, but I'll try. Meanwhile one pull quote:Two years ago, a few rare corporate leaders were concerned about climate change, or upset at Trump ’s misogyny and bigotry. Most, howeve...
Source: Stayin' Alive - Category: American Health Source Type: blogs
Yuen This research examines the mediating role of the tendency for Internet addiction, fear of missing out (FOMO), and psychological well-being in the relationship between online exposure to movement-related information and support for radical actions. A questionnaire survey that targets tertiary students was conducted during the Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill (Anti-ELAB) Movement (N = 290). The findings reveal the mediating effect of Internet addiction and depression as the main relationship. These findings enrich the literature of political communication by addressing the political impact of Internet use bey...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Most people know about the damaging effects that binge drinking can bring to someone’s life. Loss of enjoyment of life, losing family relationships, financial and career struggles, homelessness, and legal consequences are just the tip of the iceberg. However, it can be more difficult to realize the long-term effect of binge drinking on the body, because you cannot always see it. Frequent binge drinking poses many dangerous health risks, and many of them can lead to death. Facts on Long-Term Effect of Binge Drinking on the Body For men, binge drinking is defined as consuming five or more drinks within about two hour...
Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Alcohol Rehab Information Alcoholism alcohol abuse alcohol dependence alcohol treatment alcohol treatment center binge binge drinking Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Neuroscience ResearchAuthor(s): Yuichi Takeuchi, Antal BerényiAbstractOscillatory brain activities support many physiological functions from motor control to cognition. Disruptions of the normal oscillatory brain activities are commonly observed in neurological and psychiatric disorders including epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, anxiety/trauma-related disorders, major depressive disorders, and drug addiction. Therefore, these disorders can be considered as common oscillation defects despite having distinct behavio...
Source: Neuroscience Research - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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