Microglia–blood vessel interactions: a double-edged sword in brain pathologies

Abstract Microglia are long-living resident immune cells of the brain, which secure a stable chemical and physical microenvironment necessary for the proper functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). These highly dynamic cells continuously scan their environment for pathogens and possess the ability to react to damage-induced signals in order to protect the brain. Microglia, together with endothelial cells (ECs), pericytes and astrocytes, form the functional blood–brain barrier (BBB), a specialized endothelial structure that selectively separates the sensitive brain parenchyma from blood circulation. Microglia are in bidirectional and permanent communication with ECs and their perivascular localization enables them to survey the influx of blood-borne components into the CNS. Furthermore, they may stimulate the opening of the BBB, extravasation of leukocytes and angiogenesis. However, microglia functioning requires tight control as their dysregulation is implicated in the initiation and progression of numerous neurological diseases. Disruption of the BBB, changes in blood flow, introduction of pathogens in the sensitive CNS niche, insufficient nutrient supply, and abnormal secretion of cytokines or expression of endothelial receptors are reported to prime and attract microglia. Such reactive microglia have been reported to even escalate the damage of the brain parenchyma as is the case in ischemic injuries, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's and...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Wei Li1†, Wei-Min Xiao1†, Yang-Kun Chen1*, Jian-Feng Qu1, Yong-Lin Liu1, Xue-Wen Fang2, Han-Yu Weng1 and Gen-Pei Luo11Department of Neurology, Dongguan People’s Hospital, Dongguan, China2Department of Radiology, Dongguan People’s Hospital, Dongguan, ChinaBackground: Anxiety is prevalent after a stroke. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of poststroke anxiety (PSA) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and neuroimaging risk factors for development of PSA and examine the effects of PSA on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Ivy D. Deng1, Luke Chung2, Natasha Talwar3,4, Fred Tam1, Nathan W. Churchill3, Tom A. Schweizer3,4,5,6† and Simon J. Graham1,2*† 1Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute (SRI), Toronto, ON, Canada 2Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada 3Neuroscience Research Program, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Toronto, ON, Canada 4Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada 5Division of Neurosurgery, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada 6Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Univer...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusion The expression of the components of the PTN-MK-RPTPβ/ζ axis in immune cells and in inflammatory diseases suggests important roles for this axis in inflammation. Pleiotrophin has been recently identified as a limiting factor of metainflammation, a chronic pathological state that contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Pleiotrophin also seems to potentiate acute neuroinflammation independently of the inflammatory stimulus while MK seems to play different -even opposite- roles in acute neuroinflammation depending on the stimulus. Which are the functions of MK and PTN in chronic neuroinfla...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: In this review we will provide animal and human research data on the current clinical neurological uses for CBD individually and in combination with Δ9-THC. We will emphasize the neuroprotective, antiinflammatory, and immunomodulatory benefits of phytocannabinoids and their applications in various clinical syndromes. PMID: 29770251 [PubMed]
Source: Surgical Neurology International - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Surg Neurol Int Source Type: research
Conclusions: This study demonstrates that neurologic patients have a high proportion of AEs in hospital. The findings provide information on the quality and safety of care for people with neurologic conditions in hospital, which can help inform future quality improvement initiatives.
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: All Health Services Research, Medical care, All Clinical Neurology, Patient safety ARTICLE Source Type: research
iev G Abstract The neuroimmune system represents a dense network of biochemical signals associated with neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neurohormones, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors synthesized in neurons, glial cells and immune cells, to maintain systemic homeostasis. Endogenous and/or exogenous, noxious stimuli in any tissue are captured by sensor cells to inform the brain; likewise, signals originating at the central nervous system (CNS) level are transmitted to peripheral immune effectors which react to central stimuli. This multidirectional information system makes it possible for the CNS to resp...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
DRUG DELIVERY TO CNS: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES WITH EMPHASIS ON BIOMATERIALS BASED DRUG DELIVERY STRATEGIES. Curr Pharm Des. 2016 Apr 1; Authors: Khambhla E, Shah V, Baviskar K Abstract The current epoch has witnessed a lifestyle impregnated with stress, which is a major cause of several neurological disorders. High morbidity and mortality rate due to neurological diseases and disorders have generated a huge social impact. Despite voluminous research, patients suffering from fatal and/or debilitating CNS diseases such as brain tumors, HIV, encephalopathy, Alzheimer's, epilepsy, Parkinson's, migrai...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Abstract Accumulating evidence demonstrates involvement of tryptophan metabolites and in particular activation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) in neurocognitive disorders under CNS inflammatory conditions. The KP is involved in several brain-associated disorders including Parkinson's disease, AIDS dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, schizophrenia, and brain tumors. Our review is an attempt to address any relevant association between dysregulation of KP and multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory CNS disorder that ultimately leads to demyelinated brain areas and sever...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Abstract Accumulating evidence demonstrates involvement of tryptophan metabolites and in particular activation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) in neurocognitive disorders under CNS inflammatory conditions. The KP is involved in several brain-associated disorders including Parkinson's disease, AIDS dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, schizophrenia, and brain tumors. Our review is an attempt to address any relevant association between dysregulation of KP and multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory CNS disorder that ultimately leads to demyelinated brain areas and sever...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
iev G Abstract The neuroimmune system represents a dense network of biochemical signals associated with neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neurohormones, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors synthesized in neurons, glial cells and immune cells, to maintain systemic homeostasis. Endogenous and/or exogenous, noxious stimuli in any tissue are captured by sensor cells to inform the brain; likewise, signals originating at the central nervous system (CNS) level are transmitted to peripheral immune effectors which react to central stimuli. This multidirectional information system makes it possible for the CNS to resp...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
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