Behind the Headlines Top Five of Top Fives 2015

In this study, researchers wanted to see why this is and if there could be any human applications. Researchers collected white blood cells from African and Asian elephants. They found elephants have at least 20 copies of a gene called TP53. TP53 is known to encourage cell "suicide" when DNA is damaged, stopping any potential cancer in its tracks. In contrast, humans are thought to have only a single copy of the TP53 gene. Of course the big question – the elephant in the room, if you will – is how we can boost TP53 activity in humans to stimulate a similar protective effect. The simple answer is: we don't know. Yet. Researchers 'a step closer' to universal flu vaccine It just like buses. You wait years for a potential universal flu vaccine then two come along at the same time. In August two studies were published, both on the possibility of creating a “one-size jab” for the flu. The flu virus is shaped like a ball, with many "spikes" sticking out of its surface made of a chemical called haemagglutinin. The "stem" part of this spike does not change as much as its tip or other parts of the virus, so both of these studies aimed to develop a vaccine that targeted the stem. Targeting these areas may help keep the vaccines effective even if new strains come along. Both vaccines were able to protect mice against what would usually be a lethal dose of flu, and one vaccine reduced fever symptoms in monkeys. While the results were e...
Source: NHS News Feed - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: QA articles Medical practice Special reports Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 19 February 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Lu Huang, Yue Xi, Yanfang Peng, Yan Yang, Xiaodan Huang, Yunwei Fu, Qian Tao, Jia Xiao, Tifei Yuan, Kai An, Huan Zhao, Mingliang Pu, Fuqiang Xu, Tian Xue, Minmin Luo, Kwok-Fai So, Chaoran RenSummaryLight plays a pivotal role in the regulation of affective behaviors. However, the precise circuits that mediate the impact of light on depressive-like behaviors are not well understood. Here, we show that light influences depressive-like behaviors through a disynaptic circuit linking the retina and the lateral habenula (LHb). Specifically, M4-type melano...
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
ConclusionPlasmalogens could be a potential biomarker for evaluating the early stages of oxidation in NASH.
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
This study was based on a randomized controlled trial (NCT01998230). Patients with esophageal cancer who received McKeown MIE were randomly allocated into a group that started oral feeding on postoperative day (POD) 1 (EOF group) or a second group that received nil by mouth until 7 days after operation (late oral feeding [LOF] group). We chose 86 patients, 46 patients in the EOF group and 40 patients in the LOF group, in which to analyze inflammatory cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-a [TNF-α], and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1]).ResultsThe EOF and LOF groups exhibited similar p...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsIt remains premature to declare superiority for uniportal VATS in lung cancer surgery. A higher level of evidence is needed, especially in investigating objective benefits and treatment efficacy of the single-incision approach.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
This report discusses an infarct exclusion technique modified from the one described by Tirone David and associates. In this technique two separate pericardial patches are used. The first patch excludes the rupture. The second patch is sutured to the margins of the first patch and thus provides strength to the margins of the first patch. The repair is simple and durable and has reduced the incidence of residual ventricular septal defects and patch dehiscence.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 107, Issue 3Author(s): Nissim Ohana, Daniel Benharroch, Dimitri SheinisA young woman displayed a dural tear during thoracic spine surgery. The corpectomy was by anterior approach, after thoracotomy. The dural defect was plastered by a fatty flap and a pleural layer. One month later, she exhibited a right pleural effusion. No consensual intervention is available for this complication. This dural fistula was sealed by a triple patch comprising a flap of intercostal muscles. The incidence of dural leaks following an anterior thoracic spinal surger...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
We report of a 20-year-old Marfan syndrome patient presenting with severe aortic regurgitation and severe heart failure. Aortic surgery with concurrent biventricular paracorporeal assist device implantation was performed to bridge the patient to heart transplantation, which was performed successfully 21 weeks after aortic surgery. While the optimal strategy for this situation has not been described, the approach applied here appears a valid option.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
We describe 2 patients who required early intervention for severe foreshortening and incomplete expansion of the Thoraflex (Vascutek, Inchinnan, United Kingdom) stent graft.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 107, Issue 3Author(s): Guillaume Lebreton, Ciro Mastroianni, Julien Amour, Pascal LeprinceA 30-year-old patient had angiosarcoma of the right atrium with a negative outcome. The use of a SynCardia or Carmat was not possible due to invasion of the right atrium by the tumor, so we implanted two HeartWare ventricular assist devices (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) in a total artificial heart configuration using a technique not previously described. The surgical follow-up was simple, and the patient remained alive 30 days postoperatively. The technique...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 107, Issue 3Author(s): Jing Zhang, Wenrui Ma, Wei Zhang, Ye KongRecurrent coronary artery fistula is rare and can be difficult for surgical treatment because of anatomic complexity. Here, we reported a case of successful re-repair of a recurrent coronary artery fistula, with added evidence of the three-dimensional printed models guiding surgical correction of complex intracardiac abnormalities.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
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