Behind the Headlines Top Five of Top Fives 2015

In this study, researchers wanted to see why this is and if there could be any human applications. Researchers collected white blood cells from African and Asian elephants. They found elephants have at least 20 copies of a gene called TP53. TP53 is known to encourage cell "suicide" when DNA is damaged, stopping any potential cancer in its tracks. In contrast, humans are thought to have only a single copy of the TP53 gene. Of course the big question – the elephant in the room, if you will – is how we can boost TP53 activity in humans to stimulate a similar protective effect. The simple answer is: we don't know. Yet. Researchers 'a step closer' to universal flu vaccine It just like buses. You wait years for a potential universal flu vaccine then two come along at the same time. In August two studies were published, both on the possibility of creating a “one-size jab” for the flu. The flu virus is shaped like a ball, with many "spikes" sticking out of its surface made of a chemical called haemagglutinin. The "stem" part of this spike does not change as much as its tip or other parts of the virus, so both of these studies aimed to develop a vaccine that targeted the stem. Targeting these areas may help keep the vaccines effective even if new strains come along. Both vaccines were able to protect mice against what would usually be a lethal dose of flu, and one vaccine reduced fever symptoms in monkeys. While the results were e...
Source: NHS News Feed - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: QA articles Medical practice Special reports Source Type: news

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Grading and staging of urothelial neoplasm are the most crucial factors in risk stratification and management; both necessitate optimal accuracy and consistency. Several updates and recommendations have been provided though recent publications of the 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification, the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, and the International Consultation on Urological Diseases –European Association of Urology updates on bladder cancer. Updates and recent studies have provided better insights into and approaches to the challenging scenarios in grading and...
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - Category: Pathology Authors: Source Type: research
The American Joint Committee for Cancer eighth edition staging manual incorporated several critical changes regarding staging of testis germ cell tumors, and these changes are summarized and discussed in this article. Further challenges, however, remain, and these are also highlighted.
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - Category: Pathology Authors: Source Type: research
This article reflects the aspects that are most influential on daily practice. A brief summary of 3 ancillary commercially available genomic tests is also provided.
Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics - Category: Pathology Authors: Source Type: research
Study Design. Community-based, cohort study. Objective. Our aim was to determine the course of back pain in middle-aged women over a 9-year period, and assess whether obesity and physical inactivity are associated with more frequent back pain. Summary of Background Data. Back pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide. With minimal effective therapies and rising financial burden, identifying modifiable risk factors remains a key priority. Methods. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health is a cohort study of community-based, middle-aged women who completed questionnaires every 3 years between 2...
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Real-world effectiveness of pemetrexed maintenance therapy is similar to that observed in published randomized controlled trials, confirming a role for pemetrexed maintenance in eligible patients in clinical practice. PMID: 30421624 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - Category: Research Tags: Curr Med Res Opin Source Type: research
Authors: Sghaier I, Zidi S, Mouelhi L, Ghazoueni E, Brochot E, Almawi WY, Loueslati BY Abstract BACKGROUND: Chronic infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) is linked with a pro-inflammatory state, predisposing to cirrhosis and liver cancer, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A role for toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling in hepatocarcinogenesis was recently documented. We hypothesised a link TLR3 and TLR4 polymorphisms and HCC, as surrogates for the significance of TLR signalling in the promotion and initiation of HCC. MATERIALS &METHODS: We recruited 174 HCV-infected patients, 100 HBV-...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Picca A, Berzero G, Di Stefano AL, Sanson M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the genes isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 have been reported in a limited number of tumors. In gliomas, IDH mutations are primarily detected in WHO grade II-III tumors and represent a major biomarker with diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive implications. The recent development of IDH inhibitors and vaccines suggests that the IDH mutation is also an appealing target for therapy. Areas covered: This review focuses on the role of IDH mutations in diffuse gliomas. Besides discussing their role in gliomagenesis, we will em...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research
In conclusion, nurses need to provide individualized support and counseling that address the sources of burden. This highlights the benefit of training health care professionals to provide culturally sensitive support based on family caregivers' needs and circumstances.
Source: Holistic Nursing Practice - Category: Nursing Tags: FEATURES Source Type: research
This study aimed to identify factors to inform nurse-led smoking behavioral assessments and cessation interventions. Clinical data from new patients attending the family medicine outpatient department from a large tertiary hospital in a major Southern China city were collected between March and December 2015. Data including basic demographics, medical history, vaccination history, current medication, and information on lifestyle risk factors were collected by frontline nurses during nursing assessment on their initial visit. Chi-square and Student's t tests were used as univariate analysis and post hoc regression analysis ...
Source: Holistic Nursing Practice - Category: Nursing Tags: FEATURES Source Type: research
Authors: Korhan P, Yılmaz Y, Bağırsakçı E, Güneş A, Topel H, Carr BI, Atabey N Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem worldwide and most cases are incurable because of late presentation. It is the most common primary neoplasm of the liver and often arises in the context of a chronic liver disease that impairs coagulation. Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a common complication of HCC that is associated with a poor prognosis. Heparin derivatives are widely used in the management of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Among them low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) favorably influen...
Source: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
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