Effect Modification of Long-Term Air Pollution Exposures and the Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease in US Women Epidemiology

Background Ambient air pollution exposures have been frequently linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. However, less is known about the populations most susceptible to these adverse effects. Methods and Results We assessed the associations of long-term particulate matter (PM) exposures with incident CVD in a nationwide cohort of 114 537 women in the Nurses’ Health Study, and performed analyses to identify subpopulations at the greatest risk. Residential address level time-varying monthly exposures to PM2.5, PM10, and PM2.5 to 10 microns in diameter were estimated from spatio-temporal prediction models. In multivariable models, increases in all size fractions of PM were associated with small, but not statistically significant, increased risks of total CVD, coronary heart disease, and stroke. PM-associated CVD risks were statistically significantly higher among women with diabetes as compared to those without (P-for-interaction
Source: JAHA:Journal of the American Heart Association - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

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In this study, we assessed the association between Twitter-derived sentiments towards racial/ethnic minorities at state-level and individual-level CVD-related outcomes from the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Outcomes included hypertension, diabetes, obesity, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and any CVD from BRFSS 2017 (N = 433,434 to 433,680 across outcomes). A total of 30 million race-related tweets were collected using Twitter Streaming Application Programming Interface (API) from 2015 to 2018. Prevalence of negative and positive sentiment towards r...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
ConclusionsOverweight/obese females can shift their carbohydrate intake for higher cereal fiber to decrease T2DM risk, but GL may cancel-out this effect.
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Conclusions: Central obesity alone and compound obesity are associated with the risk of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Compound obesity but not central obesity alone is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease, but further research is needed to confirm it. There are no significant relationship between stroke and central obesity alone or compound obesity.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Overweight and obesity was substantially prevalent among primary schoolboys with a significant rural–urban difference.
Source: Indian Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
This study examined whether self-monitoring can reduce clinic BP in patients with hypertension-related co-morbidity. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of articles published in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library up to January 2018. Randomised controlled trials of self-monitoring of BP were selected and individual patient data (IPD) were requested. Contributing studies were prospectively categorised by whether they examined a low/high intensity co-intervention. Change in BP and likelihood of uncontrolled BP at 12-months were examined according to number and type of hypertension-related co-morbidity in a o...
Source: American Journal of Hypertension - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Am J Hypertens Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Efforts that prevent adverse childhood experiences could also potentially prevent adult chronic conditions, depression, health risk behaviors, and negative socioeconomic outcomes. States can use comprehensive public health approaches derived from the best available evidence to prevent childhood adversity before it begins. By creating the conditions for healthy communities and focusing on primary prevention, it is possible to reduce risk for adverse childhood experiences while also mitigating consequences for those already affected by these experiences. PMID: 316...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to assess gender identity differences in CVD risk and CVD conditions among adults in the U.S. Using data from the 2014 –2017 BRFSS we compared CVD risk and CVD conditions in gender minorities (transgender men, transgender women and gender nonconforming persons) to both cisgender men and women. The sample consisted of 662,903 participants. Transgender women (AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.05–1.72) and transgender men (AOR 1. 54, 95% CI 1.07–2.24) were more likely to be overweight than cisgender women. Compared to cisgender women, transgender women reported higher rates of diabetes...
Source: Journal of Behavioral Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundFunctional limitations may be more common in middle-aged adults than previously recognized. However, there are few published data on the prevalence of activity limitations, and their association with multimorbidity, among adults 50 to 64  years old.ObjectiveTo describe the prevalence of activity limitations and the association with multimorbidity in middle-aged adults.DesignCross-sectional analysis of US population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011 –2016.ParticipantsThe total number of community-dwelling NHANES participants aged 50 –64 years old is ...
Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research
AbstractAimsTo compare non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events and metabolic outcomes, among obese patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery compared with a propensity-matched non-bariatric cohort.MethodsA retrospective cohort study was conducted among 11,125 active patients with type 2 diabetes from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Propensity score matching (up to 1:6 ratio) was used to identify patients who underwent bariatric surgery (N = 131) with a non-bariatric cohort (N = 579). Follow-up was undertaken for 10 years (9686 person-years) t...
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
In this study we show, for the first time, significant alterations in cholesterol efflux capacity in adolescents throughout the range of BMI, a relationship between six circulating adipocyte-derived EVs microRNAs targeting ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux capacity, and in vitro alterations of cholesterol efflux in macrophages exposed to visceral adipose tissue adipocyte-derived EVs acquired from human subjects. These results suggest that adipocyte-derived EVs, and their microRNA content, may play a critical role in the early pathological development of ASCVD. Commentary on the Developing UK Government Position on Hea...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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