Kidney Transplantation: Multiparametric Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Assessment of Renal Allograft Pathophysiology in Mice

Objectives: The aims of this experimental study were to investigate renal allograft pathophysiology by multiparametric functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to directly correlate MRI parameters with renal histopathology in mouse models of allogenic and isogenic kidney transplantation (ktx). Materials and Methods: Allograft rejection was induced by transplantation of C57BL/6 (B6) donor kidneys into BALB/c recipients (allogenic ktx). B6 mice that received B6 kidneys served as controls (isogenic ktx). Three weeks after ktx, MRI was performed using a 7-T small-animal scanner. Flow sensitive alternating inversion recovery echoplanar imaging arterial spin labeling, multiecho turbo spin echo, and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences were acquired. Maps of renal perfusion, T2 and T1 relaxation times, and apparent diffusion coefficients were calculated. Histological changes in the kidney were evaluated according to Banff criteria. Renal cell infiltrates and fibrosis were quantified by immunohistochemistry. Differences between groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test, and the correlation of MRI parameters with renal histopathology was determined by Spearman correlation analysis. Results: After allogenic, but not isogenic, ktx, animals developed acute allograft rejection. Allogenic grafts were infiltrated by macrophages and T-lymphocytes and exhibited marked renal fibrosis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed stronger impairment of renal perfusion (56 ± 7 vs 2...
Source: Investigative Radiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

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Conclusion: In our experience, RCC had a detrimental impact on graft survival among KTRs, highlighting the potential benefit of early diagnosis and optimal immunosuppression management in optimizing graft survival.Am J Nephrol
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is higher in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) compared to the general population. However, the risk factors and outcomes based on the diagnosis of RCC after kidney transplantation are limited. METHODS: We analyzed risk factors for the development of RCC in KTRs transplanted at our institution between 1994 and 2016. We compared the incidence of graft failure and mortality in KTRs with RCC to matched controls using 5:1 event density sampling. Identifying the risk factors of RCC and patient and graft survival were outcomes of interest. RESU...
Source: American Journal of Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Am J Nephrol Source Type: research
We report 2 cases of de novo renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in renal grafts after transplantation. Both patients underwent nephron sparing surgery (NSS) 211 and 167 months after transplantation, revealing papillary RCC with a tumour size #x3e;4 cm (pT1a). Within a follow-up of 25 and 32 months after NSS, a stable renal function without indication for dialysis was present. No recurrence of RCC in both cases was reported within the yearly routine examinations. NSS in kidney allografts is a safe procedure with preservation of renal function.Urol Int
Source: Urologia Internationalis - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdvances in preservation and transplantation techniques have made renal autotransplantation (RA) a modality that can be utilized in complex renovascular diseases (renal artery aneurysms), high ureteric injuries, chronic kidney pain, as well as conventionally unresectable renal tumours. In the current review, we present the Oxford experience, the only UK commissioned centre to perform RA for complex renal cell cancers, and review the published RA experience from other UK centres.Recent FindingsThe evidence and literature generated from the RA experience in the UK are largely limited to case reports....
Source: Current Urology Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Abstract The transmission of cancer from a donor organ is a rare event but has important consequences. Aim of this systematic review was to summarize all the published evidence on cancer transmission in kidney recipients. We reviewed published case reports and series describing the outcome of recipients with donor-transmitted cancer until August 2019. A total of 128 papers were included, representing 234 recipients. The most common transmitted cancers were lymphoma (n = 48, 20.5%), renal cancer (42, 17.9%), melanoma (40, 17.1%), non-small cell lung cancer (n = 13, 5.6%), neuroendocrine ...
Source: Journal of Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: J Nephrol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2020Source: Urology Case ReportsAuthor(s): Andrew Moe, Isaac Thyer, Rajalingam Sinniah, Dickon Hayne
Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case series study describing kidney tumors following HT. With the improving outcomes and life expectancy of HT patients, a better understanding of the factors that determine cancer risk is of the utmost importance and may have a major impact on the non-cardiac surveillance. PMID: 32378819 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Israel Medical Association Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: Isr Med Assoc J Source Type: research
Conclusions. Providers and patients need to be aware of the high risk of rejection and the poor remission rate with the use of checkpoint inhibitors in kidney transplant patients. More research is warranted to assess the optimal maintenance immunosuppression during the use of checkpoint inhibitor therapy that would not diminish the chances of remission.
Source: Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Clinical Science—General Source Type: research
Authors: Abdelrahim M, Abudayyeh A Abstract With the increasing use of immunotherapy, there has been an associated increased survival in many cancers but has also resulted in unregulated organ-specific toxicities. In this chapter, we discuss the renal toxicities associated with a checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) from the typical acute tubulointersitial nephritis to glomerulonephritis, their proposed mechanisms, and treatments. We also discuss the use of CPI and reactivation of preexisting auto-immune diseases and focus on renal cell cancer in setting of Chronic kidney disease (CKD). Transplant rejection in the setting of...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVES: In the Asian population, patterns and risk factors for de novo malignancies after solid-organ transplant are not well understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Insurance claims from Taiwan's National Health Institute Research Database from 1997 to 2011 revealed 687 deceased-donor heart transplant recipients, 5038 kidney transplant recipients (50% living related-donor, 50% deceased-donor transplants), and 2127 liver transplant recipients (mainly living related-donor transplants, 30% deceased-donor transplants). During the follow-up period, rates of malignancy incidence were calculated with standa...
Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Exp Clin Transplant Source Type: research
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