Kidney Transplantation: Multiparametric Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Assessment of Renal Allograft Pathophysiology in Mice

Objectives: The aims of this experimental study were to investigate renal allograft pathophysiology by multiparametric functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to directly correlate MRI parameters with renal histopathology in mouse models of allogenic and isogenic kidney transplantation (ktx). Materials and Methods: Allograft rejection was induced by transplantation of C57BL/6 (B6) donor kidneys into BALB/c recipients (allogenic ktx). B6 mice that received B6 kidneys served as controls (isogenic ktx). Three weeks after ktx, MRI was performed using a 7-T small-animal scanner. Flow sensitive alternating inversion recovery echoplanar imaging arterial spin labeling, multiecho turbo spin echo, and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences were acquired. Maps of renal perfusion, T2 and T1 relaxation times, and apparent diffusion coefficients were calculated. Histological changes in the kidney were evaluated according to Banff criteria. Renal cell infiltrates and fibrosis were quantified by immunohistochemistry. Differences between groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test, and the correlation of MRI parameters with renal histopathology was determined by Spearman correlation analysis. Results: After allogenic, but not isogenic, ktx, animals developed acute allograft rejection. Allogenic grafts were infiltrated by macrophages and T-lymphocytes and exhibited marked renal fibrosis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed stronger impairment of renal perfusion (56 ± 7 vs 2...
Source: Investigative Radiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewRenal masses in the kidney graft pose an important clinical dilemma, balancing graft function against the need for cancer control.Recent FindingsDonor origin cancers in the renal graft can be classified as ‘donor transmitted’ or ‘donor derived’. The landmark TracerX Renal changed our understanding of renal cell carcinoma oncogenesis, demonstrating that key mutations in childhood lead to clinically apparent tumours in later life. Identified pre-operatively, contemporary evidence suggests that m asses excised prior to transplantation result in acceptable oncologic safety and g...
Source: Current Urology Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
This article summarizes roles of the exosome as the potential source of biomarkers, pathogenic molecules, and therapeutic biologics that have been extensively investigated in many kidney diseases/disorders, including lupus nephritis (LN), other glomerular diseases, acute kidney injury (AKI), diabetic nephropathy (DN), as well as in the process of renal fibrosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, in addition to polycystic kidney disease (PKD), kidney transplantation, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Moreover, the most recent evidence has shown its emerging role in kidney stone disease (or nephrolithiasis), involvi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: 21 January 2020Source: Cell Reports, Volume 30, Issue 3Author(s): Orit Harari-Steinberg, Dorit Omer, Yehudit Gnatek, Oren Pleniceanu, Sanja Goldberg, Osnat Cohen-Zontag, Sara Pri-Chen, Itamar Kanter, Nissim Ben Haim, Eli Becker, Roi Ankawa, Yaron Fuchs, Tomer Kalisky, Zohar Dotan, Benjamin DekelSummaryEnd-stage renal disease is a worldwide epidemic requiring renal replacement therapy. Harvesting tissue from failing kidneys and autotransplantation of tissue progenitors could theoretically delay the need for dialysis. Here we use healthy and end-stage human adult kidneys to robustly expand proliferative kid...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
We present our single centre experience in transplanted patients and future candidates for transplantation. Methods: Retrospective analysis from an anonymised database of bilateral nephrectomies for ADPKD patients. Results were reported as median, range, and percentage. Differences between groups were tested using ANOVA and t-test. Surgery was performed between January 2012 and July 2018. Results: Thirty-three patients underwent bilateral native nephrectomy for APKD. 18 had a functioning kidney transplant (transplant group, 55%) while 15 patients were on dialysis (dialysis group, 45%) at the time of surgery; 8 pa...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
In this study, in order to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between stage IV and stage I ccRCC specimens, we initially analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE73731). We found that maternal and embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is upregulated in stage IV ccRCC samples and that upregulation of MELK is significantly correlated with advanced disease status. Furthermore, both loss and gain-of-function assays strengthen the evidence that MELK enforces the malignant phenotype of ccRCC cells through over-activating the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. Mecha...
Source: Cell Transplantation - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Transplant Source Type: research
Contributors : Nissim Ben-Haim ; Tomer KaliskySeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensEnd-stage renal disease is a worldwide epidemic requiring renal replacement therapy. Harvesting tissue from failing kidneys and autotransplantation of expanded committed progenitors giving rise to renal parenchyma could theoretically allow for the restoration of kidney function delaying or preventing the need for dialysis or a renal allograft. Here we utilized healthy and end-stage human adult kidneys to robustly expand proliferative kidney epithelial cells and establish 3D-kidney epithelial ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Future Oncology, Ahead of Print.
Source: Future Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
We describe the clinicopathologic features of BKPyV-associated urologic carcinomas in a single-institution cohort. RESULTS: Among 4,772 kidney recipients during 1994 to 2014, 26 (0.5%) and 26 (0.5%) developed posttransplantation urothelial carcinomas (UCs) and renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), respectively, as of 2017. Six (27%) UCs but none of the RCCs expressed large T antigen (TAg). TAg-expressing UCs were high grade with p16 and p53 overexpression (P
Source: American Journal of Clinical Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Am J Clin Pathol Source Type: research
An end-stage renal disease patient underwent renal transplantation 18 years back and was on triple immunosuppression for acute rejection. She presented with left-sided abdominal lump and underwent ultrasound and noncontrast CT scan, which revealed an exophytic mass lesion in atrophic left kidney (16.2 × 13.1 × 14 cm). Baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a large avid exophytic mass (SUVmax 23, 17 × 14 × 13) in atrophic left kidney, with multiple retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies and a suspicious lung nodule. She underwent left open radical nephrectomy. Follow-up PET/CT after 1 month revealed multiple so...
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Interesting Images Source Type: research
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage renal disease, but organ demand continues to outstrip supply. The transplantation of kidneys from donors with small renal masses (SRMs) represents a potential avenue to expand the donor pool. We reviewed all published cases of transplants from donors with SRMs and we present followup data, best practices, and outline an actionable series of steps to guide the implementation of such transplants at individual centres. METHODS: A detailed literature search of the MEDLINE/PubMed and SCOPUS databases was performed. Thirty unique da...
Source: Canadian Urological Association Journal - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Can Urol Assoc J Source Type: research
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