Astrocytes: a central element in neurological diseases

Abstract The neurone-centred view of the past disregarded or downplayed the role of astroglia as a primary component in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. As this concept is changing, so is also the perceived role of astrocytes in the healthy and diseased brain and spinal cord. We have started to unravel the different signalling mechanisms that trigger specific molecular, morphological and functional changes in reactive astrocytes that are critical for repairing tissue and maintaining function in CNS pathologies, such as neurotrauma, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. An increasing body of evidence shows that the effects of astrogliosis on the neural tissue and its functions are not uniform or stereotypic, but vary in a context-specific manner from astrogliosis being an adaptive beneficial response under some circumstances to a maladaptive and deleterious process in another context. There is a growing support for the concept of astrocytopathies in which the disruption of normal astrocyte functions, astrodegeneration or dysfunctional/maladaptive astrogliosis are the primary cause or the main factor in neurological dysfunction and disease. This review describes the multiple roles of astrocytes in the healthy CNS, discusses the diversity of astroglial responses in neurological disorders and argues that targeting astrocytes may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for Alexander disease, neurotrauma, stroke, epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease as wel...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Related Links:

Mind-reading exoskeletons, digital tattoos, 3D printed drugs, RFID implants for recreational purposes: mindblowing innovations come to medicine and healthcare almost every single day. We shortlisted some of the greatest ideas and developments that could give us a glimpse into the future of medicine, but we found so many that we had trouble fitting them into one article. Here are the first ten spectacular medical innovations to watch for. 1) Mixed reality opens new ways for medical education Augmented, virtual, and mixed reality are all technologies opening new worlds for the human senses. While the difference between...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine 3d printing artificial food brain-computer interface cyborg digital tattoos drug development exoskeleton gamification google glass health insurance Healthcare Innovation List Medical education medical techn Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Epilepsy &BehaviorAuthor(s): Giada Pauletto, Francesco Bax, Gian Luigi Gigli, Simone Lorenzut, Lorenzo Verriello, Elisa Corazza, Mariarosaria ValenteAbstractAim of the studyThe aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with previous stroke (either ischemic or hemorrhagic), who developed status epilepticus (SE) mimicking a stroke relapse.Materials and methodsWe performed a retrospective cohort study of patients brought to hospital by the emergency service between December 2016 and January 2018 with a stroke code as possible candida...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
(CNN) — Need an excellent reason to add a dog to your life? How about living longer? “Our analysis found having a dog is actually protective against dying of any cause,” said Mount Sinai endocrinologist Dr. Caroline Kramer, lead author of a new systematic review of nearly 70 years of global research published Tuesday in “Circulation,” a journal of the American Heart Association. The review of the health benefits of man’s best friend analyzed research involving nearly 4 million people in the United States, Canada, Scandinavia, New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom. “Dog owne...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Featured Health News Offbeat Syndicated CBSN Boston CNN Dogs Source Type: news
We describe the medical course and sequelae of an infant's severe pertussis illness through age 5½ years. The child has failed to meet developmental milestones, requires substantial medical care, and bears the burdens of chronic lung disease, stroke, epilepsy, impaired neurodevelopment, and problems with vision. The medical and social burden of pertussis among infants too young to be vaccinated underscores the importance of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccination during pregnancy. PMID: 31568732 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Public Health Reports - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rep Source Type: research
Astrocytes are a population of cells with distinctive morphological and functional characteristics that differ within specific areas of the brain. Postnatally, astrocyte progenitors migrate to reach their brain area and related properties. They have a regulatory role of brain functions that are implicated in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, controlling blood–brain barrier permeability and maintaining extracellular homeostasis. Mature astrocytes also express some genes enriched in cell progenitors, suggesting they can retain proliferative potential. Considering heterogeneity of cell population, it is not surprising th...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Dr Christoph Diener discusses important new studies on epilepsy, headache, and stroke.Medscape Neurology
Source: Medscape Neurology and Neurosurgery Headlines - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery Commentary Source Type: news
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a subtype of cerebral stroke, with an annual incidence of approximately 3 –4 cases per million population [1]. Unlike other types of stroke, CVST typically occurs in young adults (mean age at onset: 35 years) [2]. In general, patients with CVST have a fair prognosis. Previous studies have shown that 60–79% of patients achieve good functional outcomes [Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0–1) [3–4]. However, occurrence of seizures in these patients may adversely affect the prognosis; in one study, CVST patients with seizures were found to experience two-fold h...
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Despite improvement in acute stroke care, almost 40% of patients with ischemic stroke present neurological deterioration. Neurological deterioration is associated with higher death and dependency rates. Neurological deterioration mechanisms are unknown, and half of neurological deterioration remains unexplained. We postulate that a substantial proportion of neurological deterioration in ischemic stroke is associated with periodic discharges/non-convulsive seizures that negatively impact the recovery of ischemic stroke and worsen symptoms. METHODS: Retrospective review of 24 h continuous EE...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Clin Neurophysiol Source Type: research
Condition:   Epilepsy Intervention:   Sponsor:   National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Enrolling by invitation
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Abstract Currently, the relevance of EEG measurements in acute stroke patients is considered low in clinical practice. However, recent studies on the predictive value of EEG measurements after stroke for various outcomes may increase the role of EEG in patients with stroke. We aimed to review the current literature on the utility of EEG measurements after stroke as a tool to predict outcome and complications, focusing on studies in which the EEG measurement was performed in the acute phase after the event and in which long-term outcome measures were reported. In our literature review, we identified 4 different out...
Source: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Clin EEG Neurosci Source Type: research
More News: Brain | Epilepsy | Neurology | Stroke