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New method of diagnosing deadly fungal lung infection in leukemia patients discovered

A new way detect early a potentially deadly fungal infection in patients with suppressed immune systems, such as those being treated for leukemia or have had an organ transplant, has been revealed by a team of scientists.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news

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CONCLUSIONS: - This study illustrates the difficulties in achieving accurate diagnoses from cerebrospinal fluid specimens, particularly for nonhematopoietic small blue round cell tumors and normal and inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid specimens. PMID: 29624076 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine - Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Arch Pathol Lab Med Source Type: research
Abstract Pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk of invasive fungal infection (IFI). In adult patients, the D-index, which reflects the duration and intensity of neutropenia, was reported as a predictive factor of IFI after induction therapy for AML. The aim of this study was to assess whether the D-index is a predictive factor for IFI in pediatric AML. We define the D-index as the area over the neutrophil curve during neutropenia. Ninety-two courses of chemotherapy performed for 24 consecutive patients with AML undergoing chemotherapy at Sapporo Hokuyu Hospital between April 2007 and...
Source: International Journal of Hematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Int J Hematol Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of the reviewThe purpose of this study was to summarize data on available antifungal prophylaxis of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children and when it should be administered during antineoplastic chemotherapy.Recent findingsAntifungal prophylaxis should be considered when incidence of IFD is ≥ 10%, as acute myeloblastic leukemia, high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and second-line therapy for any relapsing leukemia. In absence of specific pediatric studies, data from adults indicate that triazoles, especially posaconazole tablets, could represent the most attractive option, even if some tro...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusion Patients with acute leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome/severe aplastic anaemia were at high risk of pulmonary IFI.
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: In children with AML, adenovirus infection was rare and typically not associated with severe disease, even without specific treatment. However, disseminated and fatal disease can occur in this population. Further investigations are needed to identify pediatric AML patients at particular risk for severe adenovirus infection and to determine optimal treatment approaches in these patients.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
Authors: Nasa M, Sharma Z, Lipi L, Sud R Abstract Mucormycosis is a rare, opportunistic fungal infection that occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised hosts such as patients with diabetes mellitus, leukemia, lymphoma, renal disease, septicemia, burns, malnutrition, and following long-term treatment with steroids and antibiotics. Based on the clinical presentation and involvement, mucormycosis is classified as six major forms, namely, rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal (GI), disseminated and miscellaneous, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary being the common forms. GI mucormycosis is rare, acco...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
AbstractLarge randomized controlled trials have shown significant decrease in incidence of invasive fungal infection in acute myeloid leukemia patients with Posaconazole prophylaxis. However, very less is known about value of Posaconazole prophylaxis in resource limited settings. This observational cohort study evaluated the incidence of fungal infection in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing induction chemotherapy with Posaconazole as antifungal prophylaxis and was compared with historical controls who received Fluconazole as fungal prophylaxis. The study was conducted from Oct 2013 to July 2015 in Departm...
Source: Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
Conclusion: In children with AML, adenovirus infection was rare and typically not associated with severe disease, even without specific treatment. However, disseminated and fatal disease can occur in this population. Further investigations are needed to identify pediatric AML patients at particular risk for severe adenovirus infection and to determine optimal treatment approaches in these patients.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
Abstract BackgroundPediatric patients receiving induction chemotherapy for newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at high risk of developing life‐threatening infections. We investigated whether uniform antibacterial guidelines, including mandatory antibacterial prophylaxis in afebrile patients during induction, decreases the incidence of microbiologically documented bacteremia. MethodsBetween 2012 and 2015, 230 patients with newly diagnosed ALL (aged 1–21) were enrolled on Dana‐Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 11‐001 (DFCI 11‐001). Induction therapy, regardless of risk group, in...
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
We describe a 38‐year‐old male who presented with a lymphocytic exudative right pleural effusion and a raised pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA) level. He was initially treated for pleural tuberculosis, but presented again with worsening pleural effusion 6 weeks later. A thoracoscopic pleural biopsy revealed chronic nodular granulomatous pleuritis with cryptococcal organisms present. The repeat pleural fluid culture was positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. He was started on intravenous amphotericin B and oral flucytosine for 1 week, and then continued on oral fluconazole. He was subsequently diagnos...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
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