New Tool to Identify Tumor Heterogeneity Could Help Pave Way for Personalized Cancer Therapies and Help Pathologists Add Value for Oncologists

Ohio State University study shows correlation between genetic variability among cancer cells within tumors and the survival of patients with head-and-neck cancers Anatomic pathologists and clinical laboratories  may gain a tool to identify tumor heterogeneity. This would enable them to ultimately guide personalized cancer therapies if a new method for measuring genetic variability within a tumor and […]
Source: Dark Daily - Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Digital Pathology Instruments & Equipment Laboratory Instruments & Laboratory Equipment Laboratory News Laboratory Operations Laboratory Pathology Laboratory Testing Andrew H. Beck Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center clinical laboratory Source Type: news

Related Links:

Authors: Farooq MA, Aquib M, Farooq A, Haleem Khan D, Joelle Maviah MB, Sied Filli M, Kesse S, Boakye-Yiadom KO, Mavlyanova R, Parveen A, Wang B Abstract Cisplatin cis-(diammine)dichloridoplatinum(II) (CDDP) is the first platinum-based complex approved by the food and drug administration (FDA) of the United States (US). Cisplatin is the first line chemotherapeutic agent used alone or combined with radiations or other anti-cancer agents for a broad range of cancers such as lung, head and neck. Aroplatin™, Lipoplatin™ and SPI-077 are PEGylated liposome-based nano-formulations that are still under clinical...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
Abstract Many FDA-approved anti-cancer therapies, targeted toward a wide array of molecular targets and signaling networks, have been demonstrated to activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). Despite a critical role for UPR signaling in the apoptotic execution of cancer cells by many of these compounds, the authors are currently unaware of any instance whereby a cancer drug was developed with the UPR as the intended target. With the essential role of the UPR as a driving force in the genesis and maintenance of the malignant phenotype, a great number of pre-clinical studies have surged into the medical literatu...
Source: Experimental Cell Research - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Exp Cell Res Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion MTDH is pro-oncogenic factor playing multifaceted and diverse roles in cancer progression. Its association and central role in regulating signaling pathways such a MAPK, wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AkT, NF-κβ pathways in various cancers shows that it plays a vital role in metastasis. MTDH contribution to chemo and radiotherapy resistance provides a new direction for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Multiple mechanisms converge to promote expression of MTDH in cancers. Further studies are therefore warranted to determine whether the elevated MTDH expression has prognostic value for development...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, to improve our understanding of the role of ATP1A1 in the malignant phenotype and pathogenesis of GSCs, we evaluated ATP1A1 expression in GBMs of different grades and in two primary GSC lines established from human GBM tissues. We evaluated the role of ATP1A1 in GSC growth, its interactions with Src, and the activation of the ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. Our results revealed that ATP1A1 acts as an oncogene in our GSC models and targeting ATP1A1/Src may suppress GSC proliferation and growth. Materials and Methods Cell Isolation and Culture Human brain GBM tissues were from pathologically confirmed surgical spe...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions and Future Perspectives It is now evident that NK/ILC family plays a pivotal role in the immune defenses. Recent studies in murine and human settings demonstrated that the expression of several inhibitory checkpoints, that may be detrimental in the tumor context, is not restricted to T lymphocytes, revealing an important, yet poorly appreciated, contribution of their expression on innate immune cells. Thus, in the recent years different immunotherapy approaches, based on the blockade of inhibitory NK cell receptors, have been developed in order to unleash NK cell cytotoxicity. This is particularly important in...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion Several TISC-based immunotherapeutic approaches are under development in various stages of preclinical studies. As outlined in this review article, a careful and more exhaustive genetic and metabolic understanding of TISC-associated phenotypes is critical to develop novel TISC based immunotherapies. Various components within the tumor microenvironment such as tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells, and supporting stromal cells impact the TISC metabolism. This unique metabolic profile leads to upregulation of certain enzymes and proteins such as ALDH1, CEP55, IDO COA1 etc., which can be utilized for development ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions In the span of a very short time—less than a decade—robotic head and neck surgery has transformed the management of the head and neck cancer, and it seems clear that the future of treatment for these cancers lies in a multimodal approach in which TORS is likely to play an important role. Nevertheless, it is important to keep in mind that the current indications for TORS are limited and long-term data on the safety and oncological outcomes are needed to better understand the true role of TORS in treatment of head and neck cancer. Nonetheless, the emergence of ever more advanced robotic instruments i...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
More News: Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Cancer Therapy | Genetics | Head and Neck Cancer | Laboratory Medicine | Middle East Health | Pathology | Study