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Truncated seasonal activity patterns of the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus) in central and southern California

Publication date: Available online 25 October 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Andrew J. MacDonald, Cheryl J. Briggs Patterns of seasonal activity and density of host-seeking western blacklegged ticks, Ixodes pacificus, were investigated in central and southern California. Weekly to monthly drag sampling was undertaken at two sites in Santa Barbara County and one site in Los Angeles County over multiple years. Adult I. pacificus became active in the winter (late November) and were rare or absent by late April to early May. Nymphal ticks became active in early to late February, were absent by early May to early June, and were rarely encountered using the drag method throughout their period of peak seasonal activity. Larval ticks became active earlier in the season, or at the same time as nymphs (early to late February) and were absent by early May. These results suggest a highly truncated period of I. pacificus seasonal questing activity, particularly apparent in the juvenile tick stages, in central and southern California relative to observed patterns in Lyme-endemic northwestern California. Notably, the highly truncated period of questing activity of the juvenile stages has important implications for pathogen transmission dynamics in that there exists only a brief window for horizontally transmitted pathogens to be acquired by one tick cohort and subsequently transmitted, through hosts, to the next tick cohort in this system. The broader patterns obse...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): P. Mead, S. Hook, S. Niesobecki, J. Ray, J. Meek, M. Delorey, C. Prue, A. Hinckley Prevention of tick-borne diseases requires an understanding of when and where exposure to ticks is most likely. We used an epidemiologic approach to define these parameters for residents of a Lyme-endemic region. Two persons in each of 500 Connecticut households were asked to complete a log each night for one week during June, 2013. Participants recorded their whereabouts in 15min increments (indoors, outdoors in their yard, outdoors on other...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
To assess cost-effectiveness of a vaccine that would protect against both Lyme Borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in a highly endemic setting in Slovenia.
Source: Value in Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Hard tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia miyamotoi has been reported in Russia, the Netherlands, Germany, Japan and the northeastern and upper midwestern United States. We sought to investigate the presence of B. miyamotoi infection in humans in Manitoba, Canada. METHODS: Two hundred fifty sera collected from residents of Manitoba with suspected Lyme disease between 2011 and 2014 were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi antibody using a C6 peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by Western blot. Residual sera were then anonymized, stored at -80°C and subsequen...
Source: cmaj - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: CMAJ Open Source Type: research
Conclusions: Borrelia whole blood PCR was bundled to a pre-existing tick-borne panel to potentially account for unexplained fevers and other nonlocalizing symptoms in high-risk patients. Treatment recommendations for B. miyamotoi are based on case reports of successful treatments in other causes of relapsing fever, and the same antibiotics regimens are used for both. The utility of B. miyamotoi PCR in first-line screening of patients with unexplained fever may be minimal, given the low positivity rate observed and uniform effective empiric treatments prescribed.
Source: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Viktor Zöldi, Topi Turunen, Outi Lyytikäinen, Jussi Sane Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are endemic in Finland, with tens and thousands of cases, respectively, reported annually. We performed a field survey to investigate people’s knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding ticks, tick-borne diseases, and prevention strategies. The KAP were assessed using a pre-validated anonymous questionnaire consisting of 39 questions and statements. On two consecutive days in July 2016, conveni...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Abstract Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Babesia microti, an intraerythocytic protozoan. Babesia microti, like the causal agents for Lyme disease and anaplasmosis, is endemic to the northeastern and upper midwestern United States where it is usually transmitted by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Although babesiosis is usually a mild to moderate illness, older or immunocompromised persons can develop a serious malaria-like illness that can be fatal without prompt treatment. The most common initial clinical signs and symptoms of babesiosis (fever, fatigue, chills, and diaphore...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLyme disease is a tick-borne zoonosis transmitted through a bite of a tick carrying a spirochete belonging toBorrelia species. In the last 20  years, the reported incidence of Lyme disease is increased by three times in Europe. Clinically, the illness develops through a primary stage with a typical skin rash (erythema marginatum), then a secondary stage with possible neurologic or cardiac involvement. The last stage (chronic Lyme disease ) is mainly represented by arthritis or late neurological complications but nowadays is rarely seen due to precocious antibiotic use.Recent FindingsThe diagno...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our results highlight the potential for climate change to have an effect on future Lyme disease risk in Canada even if the Paris Agreement’s goal to keep global warming below 2°C is achieved, although mitigation reducing emissions from RCP8.5 levels to those of RCP6.0 or less would be expected to slow tick invasion after the 2030s. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP57 Received: 02 March 2016 Revised: 26 August 2016 Accepted: 30 August 2016 Published: 31 May 2017 Address correspondence to H. Beltrami, Earth Science Department, Physical Sciences Center, PO Box 5000, 1 West St, Antigonish, NS B2G 1W5. Tel...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Carolina K. Rangel, Luís F. Parizi, Gabriela A. Sabadin, Evenilton P. Costa, Nelilma C. Romeiro, Masayoshi Isezaki, Naftaly W. Githaka, Adriana Seixas, Carlos Logullo, Satoru Konnai, Kazuhiko Ohashi, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Cystatins are cysteine peptidase inhibitors that in ticks mediate processes such as blood feeding and digestion. The ixodid tick Ixodes persulcatus is endemic to the Eurasia, where it is the principal vector of Lyme borreliosis. To date, no I. persulcatus cystatin has been characterized. In the pres...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Amber D. Butler, Meredith L. Carlson, Christina A. Nelson Given the high incidence of tick bites and tick-borne diseases in the United States, it is important for primary care providers to recognize common ticks and the pathogens they may transmit. If a patient has removed and saved an attached tick, identifying the tick helps guide clinical management and determine whether antibiotic prophylaxis for Lyme disease is appropriate. To investigate providers’ ability to recognize common ticks and the pathogens they may tra...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
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