Propagation of tau pathology: hypotheses, discoveries, and yet unresolved questions from experimental and human brain studies

Abstract Tau is a microtubule-associated protein and a key regulator of microtubule stabilization as well as the main component of neurofibrillary tangles—a principle neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)—as well as pleomorphic neuronal and glial inclusions in neurodegenerative tauopathies. Cross-sectional studies of neurofibrillary pathology in AD reveal a stereotypic spatiotemporal pattern of neuronal vulnerability that correlates with disease severity; however, the relationship of this pattern to disease progression is less certain and exceptions to the typical pattern have been described in a subset of AD patients. The basis for the selective vulnerability of specific populations of neurons to tau pathology and cell death is largely unknown, although there have been a number of hypotheses based upon shared properties of vulnerable neurons (e.g., degree of axonal myelination or synaptic plasticity). A recent hypothesis for selective vulnerability takes into account the emerging science of functional connectivity based upon resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging, where subsets of neurons that fire synchronously define patterns of degeneration similar to specific neurodegenerative disorders, including various tauopathies. In the past 6 years, the concept of tau propagation has emerged from numerous studies in cell and animal models suggesting that tau moves from cell-to-cell and that this may trigger aggregation a...
Source: Acta Neuropathologica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsThis case series demonstrates that the use of a high frequency jet ventilator for cardiac MRI was feasible, safe, providing good quality cardiac imaging and avoiding anesthesia personnel to be inside the hazardous environment of MRI room. Future studies are needed to confirm its safety and efficiency in pediatric patients.ResumoJustificativa e objetivosA ressonância magnética (RM) cardíaca é uma técnica utilizada na avaliação de crianças com cardiopatias congênitas. A anestesia geral garante imobilidade, especialmente em pacientes não cooperador...
Source: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
This study builds on prior research on the benefits of awe. In research by van Elk and others, people in awe-inspiring situations reported feeling the presence of something “larger than themselves,” felt less focused on themselves and their concerns, and drew smaller self-portraits than participants in more mundane situations. (Researchers call this feeling of being smaller and less concerned with oneself the “small self.”) The new study’s brain scans complement the survey results in earlier studies, which can be prone to bias and rely on participants’ memories rather than real-time resp...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Education & Lifelong Learning awe brain brain networks brain scans default mode network ego dissolution flow state Human Brain Mapping meditation Source Type: blogs
We report the case of a 44-year-old patient with low back pain and radiculopathy. Radiographs revealed lytic spondylolisthesis in L5. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hypointense signal on T1 and a heterogeneous signal on T2 located in the L4-L5 interspinous space and in the left facet joint that invades left neuroforamen. The left knee ultrasound showed “double contour” of the medial femoral condyle. Decompressive laminectomy with arthrodesis at the level of L5-S1 was performed. The histological examination revealed amorphous material with a foreign body giant cell reaction.ResumenLos depósitos de tofo...
Source: Reumatologia Clinica - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
DiscussionThe study demonstrates an association of the NPSR1 rs324981 genotype and the perception of agoraphobia-specific stimuli. These results support the assumption of a fronto-limbic dysfunction as an intermediate phenotype of PD/AG.
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: This case demonstrates that neurological involvement might be an early symptom of BD. IL-8 could act as a novel target for the treatment of BD theoretically and probably play a key role in disease recovery.
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been receiving increasing attention. Approximately half of patients with PD have experience PD-related pain. We investigated the effect and mechanism of acupuncture in patients with PD who have pain. PD patients with pain were divided into acupuncture group and control group. Nine patients completed acupuncture treatment; seven patients who received only an analgesic agent underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) twice. fMRI was performed to evaluate the functional connectivity of the brain regions. After treatment, a decrease in total score...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractPsychological resilience refers to the ability to adapt effectively in the face of adversity, which is closely related to an individual ’s psychological and physical health and well-being. Although previous behavioural studies have shown sex differences in psychological resilience, little is known about the neural basis of sex differences in psychological resilience. Here, we measured amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) via resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the sex-linked neurofunctional basis of psychological resilience in 231 healthy adolescents. At the behavioura...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
ConclusionsPre-biopsy mpMRI for clinically suspected prostate cancer is emerging as a standard of practice in Ireland. International guidelines are also changing to reflect latest clinical trial evidence. Private health insurance providers should amend their policies to reflect current clinical practices already adopted in the public sector.
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Yuanyi Shen Rare earth elements (REEs), known as “industrial vitamins”, are widely used in medical treatment, industry, agriculture, etc. However, with the increasing demand for REEs, excess REEs, such as gadolinium (Gd), are considered micropollutants in the environment. In this paper, the distributions of dissolved REEs were analyzed in three small streams, in order to determine the extent and occurrence of Gd anomalies. The shale-normalized REE patterns in the three streams were less smooth with heavy REEs higher than light REEs, for a weak reaction of the heavy REE complexes. A negative Ce (ceri...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ConclusionsDiffuse lesions may help to predict the poor neurological outcomes in patients with TSC.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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