Cancer immunology for the clinician.

Cancer immunology for the clinician. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2015 May;13(5):299-306 Authors: Weiner LM Abstract Cancer immunotherapy is coming of age. It has become abundantly clear that immunotherapy-which has been described as treating the body's immune system so the immune system can treat the cancer-can be routinely effective, and may indeed cure advanced cancers. Accordingly, it is important to understand the basic, clinically relevant principles of cancer immunology to better prepare for an increasingly exciting future. The host immune system is the only active enemy faced by a malignant cell population as it develops. So it is helpful to think of the battle between the cancer cell population and the developing cancer as a Darwinian crucible in which only the malignant cells most fit to thrive in the face of active immune system attack are able to survive in the reluctant host. All successful cancers thus have overcome the defenses mounted by host immune systems by actively thwarting the evolution of anticancer immunity. A malignant cell population that has "solved" the riddle of the host immune system need not employ all of these mechanisms in order to survive in a particular host. Hence, it may be that the dominant mechanism or mechanisms of immune evasion in fact represent potential Achilles' heels that can be therapeutically attacked to restore immune control of a cancer. To better understand where opportunities exist for immunotherapy...
Source: Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clin Adv Hematol Oncol Source Type: research

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Contributors : Catherine J Wu ; Derin B KeskinSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensPrediction of HLA epitopes is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies and vaccines. However, current prediction algorithms have limited predictive power, in part because they were not trained on high-quality epitope datasets covering a broad range of HLA alleles. To enable prediction of endogenous HLA class I-associated peptides across a large fraction of the human population, we used mass spectrometry to profile>185,000 peptides eluted from 95 HLA-A, -B, -C and -G mono-all...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Authors: Franza L, Carusi V, Parrinello G, Pandolfi F Abstract In this editorial the authors highlight recent findings which could help design a personalized approach for cancer immunotherapy. PMID: 31833336 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research
Authors: Kolarova I, Vanasek J, Odrazka K, Melichar B, Ryska A, Petera J, Vosmik M, Dolezel M Abstract Breast cancer with high expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 represents a biologically and clinically heterogeneous group of neoplastic disorders. Importantly, hormone receptor expression has an effect on biological properties and affects the selection of therapies. On the basis of molecular genetics, four principal subtypes, including luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched (HER-2-E), and basal-like can be distinguished. Breast tumors characterized by HER-2 positivity and simultaneous expressi...
Source: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub Source Type: research
Authors: Martel A, Hamedani M, Lagier J, Bertolotto C, Gastaud L, Poissonnet G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Orbital exenteration is a radical anatomically and psychologically disfiguring procedure. It is mostly performed for management of orbital cancers or cancers with orbital involvement. The lack of benefit in terms of overall survival and the development of new molecular therapies (targeted therapies, immunotherapy) in recent years leads us to question its use. The goal of our review is to answer to the following question: is orbital exenteration a viable procedure in 2019? MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature rev...
Source: Journal Francais d Ophtalmologie - Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Fr Ophtalmol Source Type: research
Conclusions: The complexity of toxicities associated with modern targeted and immunotherapeutic agents for cancer require a multidisciplinary approach among ICU staff, oncologists, and organ specialists and adoption of standardized treatment protocols to ensure the best possible patient outcomes.
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Feature Articles Source Type: research
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is commonly known as the most aggressive primary CNS tumor in adults. The mean survival of it is 14 to 15 months, following the standard therapy from surgery, chemotherapy, to radiotherapy. Efforts in recent decades have brought many novel therapies to light, however, with limitations. In this paper, authors reviewed current treatments for GBM besides surgery. In the past decades, only radiotherapy, temozolomide (TMZ), and tumor treating field (TTF) were approved by FDA. Though promising in preclinical experiments, therapeutic effects of other novel treatments including BNCT, anti-angiogenic t...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Conclusion: No statistical difference was observed between DAKO and BIOCARE®, therefore we propose that both techniques can be used in order to investigate the expression of programmed ligand 1 with safety. PD-L1 expression was higher in the central mass instead of the lymphnodes.
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), one heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells, have suppressive function on immune response during tumor, inflammation, infection and autoimmune diseases. The molecular mechanism underlying expansion and function of MDSCs is becoming appreciated to manipulate immune response in the diseases. MicroRNA (miRNAs) as one short noncoding RNAs, are involved in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and maturation. However, it needs to be further studied how miRNAs mediate the development and function of MDSC in association with cancer and other diseases. In the review, we...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Pancreatic cancer is still diagnosed at a late stage although we have novel diagnostic tools. Pancreatic cancer chemotherapy treatment resistance is observed and therefore novel treatments are in need. Anti-cancer stem cell therapy, combination of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy with immunotherapy, proteins/enzymes and gene therapy are currently under evaluation. Targeted treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is also administered and novel inhibitors are also under evaluation. In the current review we present recent data from our search within the year 2018.
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
To investigate whether CD155 is an attractive target for T cell-mediated immunotherapy against human bladder cancer, we examined the novel bispecific antibody anti-CD3 x anti-CD155 (CD155Bi-Ab) for its ability to redirect activated T cells (ATCs) to target bladder cancer cells was examined. Expression of CD155 was detected by flow cytometry on the surface of bladder cancer cells, including T24 and Pumc-91 cells, and their chemotherapeutic drug-resistant counterparts. ATCs generated from healthy donors were stimulated with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody and interleukin-2 (IL-2) for 14 days. The ...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
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