Blood Test May Be Closer for Narcolepsy

Recent advances by Dr. Emmanuel Mignot's research group at Stanford University may move us closer to being able to diagnose narcolepsy with a blood test, as discussed in a recent piece on The Huffington Post.   Historically, narcolepsy has been difficult to diagnose and prior to the identification of its cause, was often dismissed as a psychiatric manifestation. The condition is relatively rare, affecting 1 in 2,000 people. It is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, hallucinations associated with sleep transitions, sleep paralysis, and often cataplexy. Cataplexy is weakness that may manifest as knee buckling or jaw slackness and that occurs in response to an emotional stimulus such as laughter, fright, or pleasure. Narcolepsy is now believed to be due to the autoimmune destruction of a population of cells within the brain that produce a neurotransmitter called hypocretin.   Beyond a clinical assessment, further testing includes the multiple sleep latency testing (MSLT). The ability to quickly fall asleep during naps spaced throughout the day, or the occurrence of REM sleep with these naps, is suggestive of narcolepsy. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid can be tested with a lumbar puncture for the absence of hypocretin, a strong indicator of the condition. Genetic testing can also occur, but it is less specific for the disorder. To this point, blood tests have not been available.   As some of the symptoms of narcolepsy may be difficult to quantify,...
Source: About Sleep Disorders - Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: news

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Authors: Kaufman MB Abstract Sunosi (solriamfetol) tablets for excessive daytime sleepiness with narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnea; Zulresso (brexanolone) injection for postpartum depression in adults; Mayzent (siponimod) tablets for adults with relapsing forms of MS. PMID: 31160867 [PubMed]
Source: P and T - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: P T Source Type: research
This study aimed to examine the prevalence of REM-related OSA in narcolepsy patients. Methods From January 2013 to April 2018, 141 adult patients were diagnosed with narcolepsy using nocturnal polysomnography and the multiple sleep latency test. The prevalence of REM-related OSA in narcolepsy patients was retrospectively reviewed. Three criteria were used to determine REM-related OSA: Definition #1, an overall apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5 and AHI during REM (AHIREM)/AHI during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) (AHINREM) ≥2; Definition #2, an overall AHI ≥5 and AHIREM/AHINREM≥2 and AHINREM
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Abstract Sleep and arousal from sleep are associated with profound changes in cardiovascular and respiratory functions. Fluctuations of arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), and respiration occur both during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep and during transitions between sleep and behavioral arousal. These changes reflect complex, state-dependent interactions among several neuronal groups in the hypothalamus and brainstem. These neurons utilize the excitatory amino-acid L-glutamate or the inhibitory amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and are modulated in a state-dependent manner by in...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
The dual-acting dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor showed durable effects in reducing excessive sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnea.FDA Approvals
Source: Medscape Neurology and Neurosurgery Headlines - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery News Alert Source Type: news
The Food and Drug Administration approved Jazz Pharmaceutical's new drug application for Sunosi, a once-daily medicine designed to improve wakefulness in adult patients suffering from narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea. Sunosi is expected to be commercially available in the United States following the final scheduling decision by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, which is typically rendered within 90 days of FDA approval. Jazz Pharmaceuticals, which is based in Dublin, Ireland,…
Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
DUBLIN, March 20, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Sunosi (solriamfetol) to improve wakefulness in adult patients with excessive daytime sleepiness associated...
Source: - New Drug Approvals - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news
A 12-year-old girl with normal neurodevelopment and narcolepsy type 1 presented with unexpected central apneas in response to sodium oxybate (SO). The patient underwent overnight polysomnography on SO (2.75 + 2.5 grams) which showed an apnea-hypopnea index of 4.3 events/h, and all the events were central apneas. A majority of central apneas clustered at about 1.5 hours after the first dose of SO. Remarkably, after a second dose of SO that was 0.25 grams smaller, she did not exhibit clusters of central sleep apneas. However, she did experience similar but milder breathing abnormalities that did not meet criteria to be score...
Source: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine : JCSM - Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract PMID: 30778912 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Sleep and Breathing - Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Tags: Sleep Breath Source Type: research
Source: Sleep and Breathing - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Despite the fact that we spend roughly a third of our lives snoozing (or at least trying to), sleep is not well understood by scientists — to say nothing of the estimated 35% of Americans who don’t get enough of it. Part of the problem is how difficult it is to study slumber. Experiments currently require individuals to come into a hospital or laboratory, cover themselves with an army of electrodes and allow a team of doctors to observe their attempts to drift off. “It’s kind of a nightmare,” says Dr. Emmanuel Mignot, director of the Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine. “They...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Artificial Intelligence healthytime Life Reinvented Source Type: news
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