New Lung Cancer Drugs Raise Hope for Mesothelioma Patients

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently granted approval for immunotherapy drugs Keytruda and Opdivo to fight non-small cell lung cancer, raising the hopes of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Drugmakers Merck &Co. and Bristol-Myers Squibb manufacture Keytruda (pembrolizumab) and Opdivo (nivolumab), respectively. Both drugs target PD-1 and PD-L1, specific proteins that block a body's immune system from attacking the cancer cells. Those same proteins were identified in a subset of mesothelioma patients with the shortest survival times. The University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center recently started the only phase II mesothelioma clinical trial for Keytruda. Meanwhile, the Netherlands Cancer Institute in Amsterdam announced in July the first mesothelioma clinical trial for Opdivo. Both drugs were already approved for other cancers, and they are now being tested in numerous clinical trials across the U.S. Opdivo has shown a promising response rate with cancers of the bladder, kidney, head and neck. Immunotherapy Cancer Drugs Work Best in Synergy Cancer researchers believe that immunotherapy drugs, such as Keytruda and Opdivo, can be utilized most effectively in a combined effort, also known as synergy, with other drugs as adjuvant treatment to eliminate remaining cancer cells after surgery. For example, the FDA approved Opdivo in 2014 for use in combination with Yervoy, a skin cancer drug, as an immunotherapy strategy for advanced mel...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Treatment & Doctors Source Type: news

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Authors: Harada K, Yasuda M, Hasegawa K, Yamazaki Y, Sasano H, Otsuka F Abstract Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy arising from adrenocortical parenchymal cells. Myxoid ACC is one of the newly identified, rare, but important histological variants of ACC, characterized by the presence of abundant extracellular Alcian Blue-positive myxoid material. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome, and the incidence of ACC in MEN1 patients has been reported to be between 1.4% and 6%. Here, we report the case of a 68-year-old Japanese woman harboring t...
Source: Endocrine Journal - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr J Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate if hyperinsulinemia and/or insulin resistance was correlated with the occurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in a group of Chinese patients. 258 inpatients were included in the study. According to the postoperative pathology results, all subjects were divided into PTC (n = 153) and control groups (with benign thyroid nodules, n = 105). Body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), FT4, FT3, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb), serum uric acid (UA), ...
Source: Endocrine Journal - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr J Source Type: research
Authors: Procaccio L, Bergamo F, Manai C, Di Antonio V, Fassan M, Zagonel V, Lonardi S, Loupakis F Abstract Introduction: Lung metastases occur in 10-20% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Most of them are treated with palliative intent and have a poor prognosis. Pulmonary metastasectomy may be a curative option for carefully selected patients with 5-year survival rates ranging from 25% to 60%. However, up to 70% of patients develop recurrence after pulmonary metastasectomy. Therefore, the identification of prognostic factors is essential in CRC patients with resectable lung metastases. Areas covered: This r...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research
Authors: Snijder J, Peraza J, Padilla M, Capaccione K, Salvatore MM Abstract Introduction: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentless form of fibrotic lung disease with a median survival of approximately 3 years after diagnosis and a mortality rate that surpasses that of many types of cancer. The pathophysiology of IPF is complex as there are likely different stages of disease occurring simultaneously in the lung. Areas covered: Some scientists consider IPF as primarily an epithelial driven disease in which dysfunctional surfactant-producing cells take an etiological precedent. Others focus on the augmente...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research
This study involved patients from the North-East Indian population, where the numbers of reported cases are increasing rapidly and alarmingly. Oxidative stress, based on 8-OH-dG levels, was found to be significantly higher in gallbladder anomalies (cholelithiasis [CL] and cholecystitis [CS]) and GBC at the plasma and DNA level, and was associated with GBC severity. The expressions of key BER pathway genes were downregulated in gallbladder anomalies and GBC compared to controls, and in GBC compared to both non-neoplastic controls and gallbladder anomalies. Expression of XRCC1 and hOGG1 was significantly associated with both...
Source: Free Radical Research - Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Recent findings in both the preclinical and clinical settings have provided convincing evidence of the ability of radiation therapy to influence tumor-directed immune responses, and have offered critical insights into the underlying mechanisms. Not only does radiation therapy convert the tumor microenvironment to promote robust tumor immunity, but it also enhances the generation of neoantigens and neoepitopes. Radiation therapy also shapes the TCR repertoire of CD8+ T cells in conjunction with immune checkpoint blockade. In conclusion, a high priority should be placed on developing rational strategies to integ...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research
Conclusions: A large number of mouse and rat cognitive testing measures have been reported for a variety of particle species and energies for acute doses. However tissue reactions occur above dose thresholds and very few studies were performed at the heavy ion doses to be encountered on space missions (
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Andréa A.S. Mendonça, Reggiani V. Gonçalves, Thaiany G. Souza-Silva, Izabel R.S.C. Maldonado, André Talvani, Antônio J. Natali, Rômulo D. NovaesAbstractWhen administered alone, preinfection exercise training and benznidazole-based chemotherapy induce cardioprotection in Chagas disease. However, the effect of concomitant exercise and benznidazole treatment is unknown. We investigated whether exercise and specific chemotherapy could interact to modulate parasitemia, inflammation, redox status and heart damage...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Huanxiang Jia, Ming Xu, Yan Bo, Wenxiao Li, Runhe ZhouAbstractAimsExtracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) is a key downstream gene of Ras pathway. Activation of Ras-ERK1/2 has been testified to be linked to the progression of diverse cancers. Nonetheless, whether Ras-ERK1/2-tumorigenic pathway is mediated by epigenetic factors remains indistinct. The purpose of the research attempted to disclose the functions of H2BK5ac in Ras-ERK1/2-evoked CRC cell phenotypes.Materials and methodsWestern blot assay was implemented for exp...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur results demonstrated that there are novel HPVs present in oral rinse samples that may be associated with OCC and OPC. These novel HPVs can be identified and characterized using NGS techniques.
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
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