Nanoparticle delivery maximizes drug defense against bioterrorism agent

Scientists from the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA have developed a nanoparticle delivery system for the antibiotic moxifloxacin that vastly improves the drug’s effectiveness against pneumonic tularemia, a type of pneumonia caused by inhalation of the bacterium Francisella tularensis. The study, which appears in the journal ACS Nano, shows how the nanoparticle system targets the precise cells infected by the bacteria and maximizes the amount of drug delivered to those cells. Jeffrey Zink, distinguished professor of chemistry and biochemistry and a senior author on the study, developed the mesoporous silica nanoparticles used for drug delivery. Zink and his research team conducted an exhaustive process to find the best particle for the job. “The nanoparticles are full of deep empty pores,” Zink said. “We place the particles in drug solution overnight, filling the pores with drug molecules. We then block the pore openings on the nanoparticle’s surface with molecules called nanovalves, sealing the drug inside the nanoparticle.” When the drug-bearing nanoparticles are injected into the infected animal, in this case a mouse, the drug stays in the nanoparticles until they reach their target: white blood cells called macrophages. Macrophages ingest nanoparticles into compartments that have an acidic environment. The nanovalves, which are designed to open in response to the more acidic surroundings, then release the drug. “We t...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Minik, New York 1897.By Jan LundiusSTOCKHOLM / ROME, Jun 3 2019 (IPS) There are several means to make profitable use of other human beings, an endeavour that tends to turn others into tools by depriving them of their roots and self-respect. This happened in concentration – and work camps, where individuals were reduced to mere numbers. Another form of objectification of fellow human beings has been to gain money by exhibiting them to paying audiences. The fate of Ota Benga is an example of this. He was a Mbuti man who in 1904, together with other “primitive people”, was exhibited at the Lousiana Purchase...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Arts Crime & Justice Education Featured Global Headlines Health Human Rights Migration & Refugees TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
Discussion Facial nerve palsy has been known for centuries, but in 1821 unilateral facial nerve paralysis was described by Sir Charles Bell. Bell’s palsy (BP) is a unilateral, acute facial paralysis that is clinically diagnosed after other etiologies have been excluded by appropriate history, physical examination and/or laboratory testing or imaging. Symptoms include abnormal movement of facial nerve. It can be associated with changes in facial sensation, hearing, taste or excessive tearing. The right and left sides are equally affected but bilateral BP is rare (0.3%). Paralysis can be complete or incomplete at prese...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Abstract Overexpression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is associated with progression of several cancers. The expression of Shh in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been reported with inconsistent results. Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) are two major subtypes of NSCLC, which have different genetic genotypes and clinical therapeutic options. The expression of Shh in specimen of patients with NSCLC has yet to be comprehensively determined according to histological subtypes. Shh expression level was determined in 167 NSCLC patients (56 LAC patients and 111 LSCC patients) by immunohist...
Source: Neoplasma - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Neoplasma Source Type: research
Conclusions: Workplace exposures contribute to the burden of disease across a range of nonmalignant lung conditions in adults (in addition to the 100% burden for the classic occupational pneumoconioses). This burden has important clinical, research, and policy implications. There is a pressing need to improve clinical recognition and public health awareness of the contribution of occupational factors across a range of nonmalignant respiratory diseases. PMID: 31149852 [PubMed - in process]
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
In this study, we found that cofilin competes with tau for direct microtubule binding in vitro, in cells, and in vivo, which inhibits tau-induced microtubule assembly. Genetic reduction of cofilin mitigates tauopathy and synaptic defects in Tau-P301S mice and movement deficits in tau transgenic C. elegans. The pathogenic effects of cofilin are selectively mediated by activated cofilin, as active but not inactive cofilin selectively interacts with tubulin, destabilizes microtubules, and promotes tauopathy. These results therefore indicate that activated cofilin plays an essential intermediary role in neurotoxic signaling th...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusion Although the HRCT findings for pulmonary tuberculosis associated with IP are atypical, appropriate tuberculosis treatments can lead to favorable outcomes. PMID: 31118378 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
With the development of rejuvenation therapies underway, and accelerating, somewhere ahead lies a dividing line. Some people will be the last to age to death, too comprehensively damaged for the technologies of the time to recover. Everyone else will live indefinitely in youth and health, protected from aging by periodic repair of the underlying cell and tissue damage that causes dysfunction and disease. Where is that dividing line? No one can say in certainty. I look at the children of today, with long lives ahead of them, and find it hard to believe that in a hundred years the problem won't be solved well in time for the...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Of Interest Source Type: blogs
Objectives: Identifying factors associated with mortality among acutely ill HIV-infected children presenting with advanced HIV disease may help clinicians optimize care for those at highest risk of death. Design: Using data from a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880), we determined baseline sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory cofactors of mortality among HIV-infected children in Kenya. Methods: We enrolled hospitalized, HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy–naive children (0–12 years), initiated antiretroviral therapy, and followed up them for 6 months. We used Cox proportional hazards regres...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Host susceptibility to respiratory tract infections (RTI) is dependent on both genetic and acquired risk factors. Repeated bacterial and viral RTI, such as pneumonia from encapsulated microorganisms, respiratory tract infections related to respiratory syncytial virus or influenza, and even the development of bronchiectasis and asthma, are often reported as the first symptom of primary immunodeficiencies. In the same way, neutropenia is a well-known risk factor for invasive aspergillosis, as well as lymphopenia for Pneumocystis, and mycobacterial infections. However, in the last decades a better knowledge of immune signalin...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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