Developmental anatomy of the airway

Publication date: Available online 31 October 2015 Source:Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine Author(s): Niall Wilton, Corina Lee, Edward Doyle The airway develops from the primitive foregut at four weeks' gestation. Congenital anomalies may result when this process is abnormal. The anatomy of the airway at birth is uniquely different from older children and adults with a large tongue, long floppy epiglottis, large occiput and cephalad larynx. These features affect the technique required for facemask ventilation, supraglottic airway use and endotracheal intubation. A neutral head position and straight bladed laryngoscope are usually used for intubation. Neonates are also obligate nasal breathers and simultaneously suckle and breathe. Minute volume is rate-dependent and the highly compliant chest easily displays sternal and intercostal recession during respiratory distress, and early onset of fatigue. From the neonatal period onwards the anatomy gradually begins to resemble that of adults. The cricoid descends caudally, the epiglottis becomes firmer and shorter, and the relatively large occiput recedes. The conventional wisdom of the cricoid ring being the narrowest part of the paediatric airway is not supported by contemporary investigation. The consequence of these findings on endotracheal tube selection and the rationale for increasing use of cuffed endotracheal tubes in children is discussed.
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Like IV DEX, intranasal DEX can also attenuate the haemodynamic stress responses of laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation without significant differences in MAP between two groups.
Source: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Source Type: research
Background: The use of drugs to attenuate the haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation is the standard of care during elective surgery. Current evidence is conflicting concerning the best agent and optimal dose for this purpose. In the majority of cases, fentanyl is widely utilized to attenuate haemodynamic responses. Ketamine, an established available drug, has been scarcely studied in this regard at low doses and against varying doses of other common agents.Objective: To compare the overall occurrence of hypertension and tachycardia immediately pre-intubation (post-induction) until 10 minutes pos...
Source: African Health Sciences - Category: African Health Source Type: research
Previous studies have demonstrated that the common laryngoscopic approach (right-sided) and midline approach are both used for endotracheal intubation by direct laryngoscopy. Although the midline approach is c...
Source: BMC Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Sevoflurane combined with cisatracurium is feasible and effective for intubation in neonates, and the MACEI of sevoflurane in this subpopulation is 2.76±0.24%. However, cardiovascular adverse effects should be taken into consideration. PMID: 31647785 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our study results show that video-assisted verbal feedback to trainees resulted in high intubation success rate and reduced complications like oesophageal intubation and desaturation in neonatal and infant intubations.
Source: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Source Type: research
Discussion: Results of the trial could provide insight into influence of lidocaine on local and systemic inflammatory response in cerebrovascular surgery, and might improve future anesthesia practice and treatment outcome. Trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03823482.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Study Protocol Clinical Trial Source Type: research
Editor ’s PerspectiveWhat We Already Know about This TopicSuccessful tracheal intubation of an infant may be a challenging skill to acquire due to differing anatomy and physiology compared to older children and adultsMultiple intubation attempts may be associated with increased complicationsWhat This Article Tells Us That Is NewIn a quaternary pediatric academic center, 16% of healthy infants undergoing routine tracheal intubations had multiple laryngoscopiesThere was also a 35% incidence of hypoxemia, defined as an oxygen saturation measurement less than 90%, during induction of anesthesiaThere was evidence for an a...
Source: Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
DiscussionGVL was safe in our experience and provides unique benefits in selected scenarios in head and neck surgery. Otolaryngologists can consider videolaryngoscopy as a complement to traditional DL.
Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusion: KVVL offers faster intubating conditions for tracheal intubation requiring armored ETTs in comparison to DL using Macintosh blade.
Source: Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Source Type: research
(Anesth Analg. 2019;128(3):584–586. Doi:10.1213/ANE.0000000000003886) While video laryngoscopy (VL) has brought substantial changes to the practice of airway management, the way anesthesiologists define a “difficult intubation” has not been altered accordingly. The American Society of Anesthesiologists has defined a “difficult airway” as “the clinical situation in which a conventionally trained anesthesiologist experiences difficulty with facemask ventilation of the upper airway, difficulty with intubation, or both,” and also has set forth clear, separate definitions of difficult ...
Source: Obstetric Anesthesia Digest - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Editorials and Reviews Source Type: research
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