Novel Approaches to Targeting Visceral and Hepatic Adiposities in HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy

Abstract Visceral and hepatic adiposities have been associated with both cardiovascular and liver disease and are of concern in HIV-infected persons in the modern era of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). The development of therapeutic targets to reduce visceral and hepatic adiposities in HIV-infected persons has been slow, because of early reports that attributed the excess adiposity to specific antiretroviral drugs. Visceral adiposity was initially thought to occur as part of a protease inhibitor-induced “HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome.” Subsequent studies show that visceral adiposity is likely a result of effective ART, recovery of health, and the normal aging process. Visceral adiposity is an established risk factor for hepatic adiposity. Identifying drug targets for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is under active investigation. The present review summarizes the recent literature on the pathogenesis of visceral and hepatic adiposities in HIV-infected persons, current therapeutic strategies, and novel interventions in HIV-infected and uninfected persons.
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Overall, these data suggest that chronic HFD consumption in mice can mimic pathophysiological and some microbial events observed in NAFLD patients. PMID: 31528245 [PubMed]
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research
Researchers find strains of the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae that produce high levels of alcohol in 60 percent of patients with the condition.
Source: The Scientist - Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news
Researchers find strains of gut bacteria that turn carbohydrates into alcohol. This may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Liver Disease / Hepatitis Source Type: news
AbstractBackgroundNumerous biomarkers have been developed for assessing the presence and severity of liver fibrosis associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fibrosis can be assessed by liver stiffness measurement (LSM) using vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE). Here we examined whether diagnostic accuracy and applicability can be further improved by combining various biomarker measurements with LSM.MethodsA total of 278 patients with biopsy-confirmed Japanese NAFLD patients were enrolled. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) was evaluated for obtaining the optimum i...
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
We investigated whether ultrasound (US) could quantify steatosis and fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Estimates of fat by gray-scale, hepatorenal index (HRI) and fibrosis by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) were made using the interquartile range (IQR)/median for ARFI quality. Biopsy was the gold standard. US fat assessment correlated with histologic grade and predicted steatosis. HRI predicted steatosis but did not improve accuracy. ARFI of good quality was highly sensitive toward severe fibrosis.
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research
Authors: Johnston MP, Patel J, Byrne CD Abstract Introduction The pandemic of obesity over the last two decades has triggered a rise in prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is associated with liver-related- and cardiovascular complications. Despite this, the first licensed drug for NAFLD is yet to be approved. Given the scale of the problem and unmet needs, there is a myriad of agents in the development pipeline. Areas covered We discuss promising agents in early phase clinical trials and categorize these agents based on their action on steatosis, steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Furthermore,...
Source: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Investig Drugs Source Type: research
Authors: Westerouen van Meeteren MJ, Drenth JPH, Tjwa ETTL Abstract Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a progressive disease phenotype starting from simple steatosis, which can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is component of the metabolic syndrome with a large impact on mortality in these patients. PPARs are nuclear receptors that regulate lipid and insulin metabolism, two key components in pathophysiology of NAFLD and NASH. Elafibranor acts as an agonist of PPAR-α and PPAR-δ and is currently under development for the treatment of NAFLD. Areas covered...
Source: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Investig Drugs Source Type: research
Contributors : Sangwon Byun ; Sunmi Seok ; Young-Chae Kim ; Yang Zhang ; Peter Yau ; Naoki Iwamori ; H E Xu ; Matthew J Potthoff ; Jian Ma ; Byron Kemper ; Jongsook K KemperSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusAutophagy is essential for cellular survival and energy homeostasis under nutrient deprivation. Despite the emerging importance of nuclear events in autophagy regulation, epigenetic control of autophagy gene transcription remains unclear. Here, we identify Jumonji-D3 (JMJD3/KDM6B) histone demethylase as a key epigenetic activator of hepatic autophagy. Upon fasting-ind...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research
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Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Introduction: The development of patient journey for patients with Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a current challenge for outpatient liver centers. The early identification of high-risk patients with NAFLD/NASH require multidisciplinary approach in order to assure the appropriate specialistic referral in a personalized model of chronic care program.
Source: Digestive and Liver Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: P-10 Source Type: research
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