Which individuals are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease and why? Impact of COPD, asthma, smoking, diabetes, and/or chronic heart disease on community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease

Pneumococcal disease (including community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease) poses a burden to the community all year round, especially in those with chronic underlying conditions. Individuals with COPD, asthma or who smoke, and those with chronic heart disease or diabetes mellitus have been shown to be at increased risk of pneumococcal disease compared with those without these risk factors. These conditions, and smoking, can also adversely affect patient outcomes, including short-term and long-term mortality rates, following pneumonia. Community-acquired pneumonia, and in particular pneumococcal pneumonia, is associated with a significant economic burden, especially in those who are hospitalised, and also has an impact on a patient's quality of life. Therefore, physicians should target individuals with COPD, asthma, heart disease or diabetes mellitus, and those who smoke, for pneumococcal vaccination at the earliest opportunity at any time of the year.
Source: Thorax - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Open access, Drugs: infectious diseases, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Vaccination / immunisation, Asthma, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Review Source Type: research

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Authors: Kawada T PMID: 32216510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Renal Failure - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Ren Fail Source Type: research
This study aimed to quantify sedentary behaviour (SB), patterns of SB accumulation and physical activity (PA) in people with COPD, and to examine physiological and functional capacity correlates of total SB and patterns of SB accumulation. SB and PA were assessed continuously over seven days using thigh-worn accelerometery in people with COPD. Participants were regarded as "sedentary" if combined sitting/reclining time accounted for ≥70% of waking wear time. Differences in patterns of SB accumulation and PA were compared between "sedentary" and "non-sedentary" participants. Physiological an...
Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: COPD Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our data suggest that peripartum exposure to neuraxial anesthesia may reduce the risk of childhood asthma primarily in males. Larger human studies and model systems with longer follow-up are required to elucidate these findings. PMID: 32212939 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - Category: Research Tags: Curr Med Res Opin Source Type: research
Human trials will begin imminently – but even if they go well and a cure is found, there are many barriers before global immunisation is feasibleCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageEven at their most effective – and draconian – containment strategies have only slowed the spread of the respiratory disease Covid-19. With the World Health Organization finally declaring a pandemic, all eyes have turned to the prospect of a vaccine, because only a vaccine can prevent people from getting sick.About 35 companies and academic institutions are racing to create such a vaccine, at least...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Vaccines and immunisation Medical research Microbiology Science World news Health Society Source Type: news
Authors: Petrella TM, Fletcher GG, Knight G, McWhirter E, Rajagopal S, Song X, Baetz TD Abstract Background: Previous versions of the guideline from the Program in Evidence-Based Care (pebc) at Ontario Health (Cancer Care Ontario) recommended that the use of high-dose interferon alfa 2b therapy be discussed and offered to patients with resected cutaneous melanoma with a high risk of recurrence. Subsequently, several clinical trials in patients with resected or metastatic melanoma found that immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies have a benefit greater than that with interferon. It was therefore conside...
Source: Current Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Curr Oncol Source Type: research
Daniel Griffin MD joins TWiV from a hospital parking lot to provide updates on COVID-19 diagnostics, clinical picture, and therapeutics, and then the TWiV team continues coverage of the coronavirus pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Click arrow to play Download TWiV 595 (71 MB .mp3, 117 min) Subscribe (free): iTunes, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Show notes at microbe.tv/twiv
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: This Week in Virology antiviral coronavirus COVID-19 diagnostic test pandemic SARS-CoV-2 vaccine viruses Source Type: blogs
Daniel Griffin MD joins TWiV from a hospital parking lot to provide updates on COVID-19 diagnostics, clinical picture, and therapeutics, and then the TWiV team continues coverage of the coronavirus pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Hosts: Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler Guest: Daniel Griffin, MD Subscribe (free): iTunes, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Tocilizumab (Wiki) Nares swab for SARS-CoV-2 (Star Trib) US SARS-CoV-2 epidemic curve (CDC) Cleaning and disinfecting (CDC) Cleaning fru...
Source: This Week in Virology - MP3 Edition - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: podcasts
Patients, carers and NHS staff could receive experimental antibody treatmentCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageDoctors have drawn up plans to infuse British coronavirus patients and their carers with blood plasma harvested from “hyperimmune” people who have recovered from the infection in an attempt to save lives.The experimental treatment will be directed at patients who are admitted to hospital with pneumonia caused by the virus in the hope that it reduces the number who end up on ventilators in intensive care units (ICUs).Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Medical research Health Infectious diseases Coronavirus outbreak UK news Science Source Type: news
In this study, we review various types of AF, proposed mechanisms, and treatment strategies for athletes with AF.
Source: Strength and Conditioning Journal - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusions: Heat waves can confer additional risks of ED visits beyond those of daily air temperature, even in a region with high air-conditioning prevalence. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP44 Received: 29 February 2016 Revised: 13 October 2016 Accepted: 24 October 2016 Published: 31 May 2017 Address correspondence to H.H. Chang, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Rd. NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30322. Telephone: (404) 712-4627; E-mail: howard.chang@emory.edu Supplemental Material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP44). The authors declare they have no actual ...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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