Cancer treatment outcomes are influenced by genetics and race, according to new study

A person's response to anticancer drug treatments is strongly related to their genetic ancestry, new research concludes. Notable associations were found for the drug temozolomide, which is used to treat brain tumors. Other drugs with results that suggest an association include etoposide and mitomycin, but the authors note that these results should be viewed as hypothesis generation.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news

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ConclusionsOur findings are not consistent with a discernable effect of cellphone use patterns in Israel on incidence trends of brain, CNS and intracranial tumors.
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Investigators at the NCI Laboratory of Immune Cell Biology  discovered an Anti-TNF Induced Apoptosis (ATIA) protein, which protects cells against apoptosis.  ATIA is highly expressed in glioblastoma and astrocytomas and its inhibition results in increased cell sensitivity to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand induced cell death.  Hence, ATIA assays ma y enable clinicians to effectively stratify patients for appropriate treatment.  ATIA exists in a soluble form that can be detected in culture medium of ATIA expressing cells indicating it could be used to develop a non-invasive, blood based diagnostic ...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Sun S, Du G, Xue J, Ma J, Ge M, Wang H, Tian J Abstract Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is highly expressed in human glioblastoma and involved in tumor immune escape and resistance to chemotherapy, is clinically correlated with tumor progression and poor clinical outcomes, and is a promising therapeutic target for glioblastoma. IDO inhibitors are marginally efficacious as single-agents; therefore, combination with other therapies holds promise for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects and mechanisms of the IDO inhibitor PCC0208009 in combination with temoz...
Source: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive and heterogeneous form of primary brain tumors, driven by a complex repertoire of oncogenic alterations, including the constitutively active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII). EGFRvIII impacts both cell-intrinsic and non-cell autonomous aspects of GBM progression, including cell invasion, angiogenesis and modulation of the tumor microenvironment. This is, at least in part, attributable to the release and intercellular trafficking of extracellular vesicles (EVs), heterogeneous membrane structures containing multiple bioactive macromolecules. He...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Proteomics : MCP - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Cell Proteomics Source Type: research
In this study, human glioma U251 cells and rat glioma C6 cells were treated with different concentrations of β-asarone. Cultured them for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and evaluated the IC50 with the results of Counting Kit-8 assay. Then, cell apoptosis and cell DNA cycles were evaluated with flow cytometry. Apoptosis related mRNA and protein were analyzed In addition, cell migration and invasion were also detected with wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. What is more, glioma specific proteins: GFAP, NRP-1 and NSE an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The corresponding CCK-8 results showed that β-asarone a...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
(Johns Hopkins Medicine) In a 'proof of concept' study, scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine say they have successfully delivered nano-size packets of genetic code called microRNAs to treat human brain tumors implanted in mice. The contents of the super-small containers were designed to target cancer stem cells, a kind of cellular 'seed' that produces countless progeny and is a relentless barrier to ridding the brain of malignant cells.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Publication date: 10 July 2018Source: Cell Reports, Volume 24, Issue 2Author(s): Seçkin Akgül, Yinghua Li, Siyuan Zheng, Marcel Kool, Daniel M. Treisman, Chaoyang Li, Yuan Wang, Susanne Gröbner, Tsuneo Ikenoue, Yiping Shen, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Gerald Tomasek, Sebastian Stark, Vinay Guduguntla, James F. Gusella, Kun-Liang Guan, Stefan M. Pfister, Roel G.W. Verhaak, Yuan ZhuSummaryMost human cancers arise from stem and progenitor cells by the sequential accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations, while cancer modeling typically requires simultaneous multiple oncogenic events. Here, we show that a ...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Authors: Parker Kerrigan BC, Hossain A, Yamashita S, Lang FF Abstract Stem cells (SC) are the seeds of tissue repair and regeneration that have been extensively investigated as tumor-tropic vectors for gene delivery to solid cancers. SC have an inherent glioma tropism that supports their use as reliable vehicles to deliver therapeutic gene products to brain neoplasms. Several types of adult SC (ASC) have been used to carry antiglioma agents, and neural SC (NSC) and mesenchymal SC (MSC) are the most studied. The therapeutic cargoes that have been tested include secreted proteins, converting enzyme/prodrug suicide co...
Source: Progress in Neurological Surgery - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Prog Neurol Surg Source Type: research
Authors: Kim JW, Chang AL, Kane JR, Young JS, Qiao J, Lesniak MS Abstract Despite many recent advances in the management of gliomas, such as aggressive surgical resection, chemoradiotherapy, antiangiogenic therapy, and molecular targeted therapy, the survival of patients with high-grade neoplasms remains dismal. Gene therapy and oncolytic virotherapy have emerged as highly promising strategies for treatment of malignant brain tumors due to recent progress in understanding of the underlying cancer biology as well as improved techniques for genetic modification of potential therapeutics. PMID: 29990979 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Progress in Neurological Surgery - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Prog Neurol Surg Source Type: research
Authors: Wipfler K, Cornish AS, Guda C Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and the deadliest type of primary brain tumor, with a median survival time of only 15 months despite aggressive treatment. Although most patients have an extremely poor prognosis, a relatively small number of patients survive far beyond the median survival time. Investigation of these exceptional responders has sparked a great deal of interest and is becoming an important focus in the field of cancer research. To investigate the molecular differences between typical and exceptional responders in GBM, comparative analyses of somati...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
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