The epidemiology of non-polio enteroviruses: recent advances and outstanding questions

We describe recent outbreaks of human enteroviruses and summarize knowledge gaps regarding their burden, spectrum of diseases and epidemiology. Summary: Reported outbreaks of respiratory, neurological, skin and eye diseases associated with human enteroviruses have increased in frequency and size in recent years. Improved molecular diagnostics and genetic sequence analysis are beginning to reveal the complex dynamics of individual serotypes and genotypes, and their contribution to these outbreaks. However, the biological mechanisms underlying their emergence and transmission dynamics remain elusive. They are likely to involve changes in the virus, such as fitness, antigenicity, virulence or tropism, and in the human population, such as levels of sanitation and of homotypic and heterotypic immunity. Improvements in surveillance, serological surveys and detailed genetic and antigenic characterization of viral populations would help to elucidate these mechanisms. This will be important for the design of outbreak control and vaccine development strategies.
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by A. Clinton White Jr and Gagandeep Kang Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: . According to ENDES 2017, Peru and none of its regions achieved 95.0% coverage for the first and booster doses. Growth and development monitoring in public sector facilities is associated with measles vaccination in terms of first and booster doses. PMID: 31967252 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista Peruana de Medicina de Experimental y Salud Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica Source Type: research
Public Health England says five cases confirmed negative with nine awaiting resultsCoronavirus latest - liveMore than a dozen people in the UK have been tested for coronavirus, as the health secretary warned there is an “increased likelihood” of cases occurring.Fourteen people were tested for the virus, with five confirmed negative and nine still awaiting results, Public Health England (PHE) said on Thursday night.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Health Matt Hancock Infectious diseases Politics Scotland Edinburgh Glasgow UK news Source Type: news
Possible cases being tested in Scotland and Belfast; World Health Organisation committee says ‘too early’ to declare emergencyFive people tested in Scotland amid reports of possible Belfast caseChina: five cities in lockdown as lunar new year festivities scrappedWhat is the Wuhan coronavirus and how worried should we be?4.23amGMTFootage has emerged online of the quarantine measures being taken in China to halt the spread of the virus, including overcrowded hospitals, sick people collapsing, and barricades going up across Wuhan.4.19amGMTState media is now reporting 26 deaths from the coronavirus in China, not 25...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Science Scotland UK news China Asia Pacific World news Source Type: news
As with all previous outbreaks of new virus infections, we are being warned of impending doom concerning the new coronavirus, 2019-nCoV that is now spreading globally. China’s National Health Commission Vice Minister Li Bin recently warned that ‘there is the possibility of viral mutation’. Perhaps Mr. Li is unaware that viral genomes sustain mutations during […]
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Basic virology Information 2019-nCoV adaptation coronavirus mutation SARS selection viral Wuhan Source Type: blogs
Publication date: February 2020Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 8, Issue 2Author(s): Rana Jawad Asghar
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2020Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 8, Issue 2Author(s): Jeremy D Keenan, Ahmed M Arzika, Ramatou Maliki, Sanoussi Elh Adamou, Fatima Ibrahim, Mariama Kiemago, Nana Fatima Galo, Elodie Lebas, Catherine Cook, Benjamin Vanderschelden, Robin L Bailey, Sheila K West, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman, Paul M Emerson, Jerusha Weaver, Sheila K West, Robin L Bailey, John Hart, Amza AbdouSummaryBackgroundThe Macrolides Oraux pour Réduire les Décès avec un Oeil sur la Résistance (MORDOR) trial found that biannual mass distribution of azithromycin to children younger tha...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
After preventing travel from Wuhan, China has locked down several more cities as it attempts to contain the deadly coronavirus. Footage online reveals the quarantine measures the country is taking to prevent the spreadChina coronavirus: US investigates suspected case as first death confirmed outside Hubei province – live newsContinue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Medical research Sars Asia Pacific Microbiology Source Type: news
Have any of y'all thought about this? For example, if someone comes into the ED with flu like symptoms, in the middle of flu season, and is an otherwise young and healthy individuals, I see no utility in testing for the flu (I'm also not a fan of Tamiflu for non-high risk populations), so it's usually just r/o something like a pneumonia, reassurance, doctor's note, and OTC symptom control. But with these periodic outbreaks of things like SARS, MERS, this novel corona virus, or even failed... What's the ER doc's role in epidemiology?
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Emergency Medicine Source Type: forums
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Heart &LungAuthor(s): Titilope Olanipekun, Valery S. Effoe, Olalekan Olanipekun, Efehi Igbinomwanhia, Onaopepo Kola-Kehinde, Claudia Fotzeu, Nicolas Bakinde, Rachael HarrisAbstractBackgroundEvidence suggests that annual influenza vaccination may prevent acute heart failure exacerbation episodes and improve survival.ObjectiveDetermine the influenza vaccination rate among African American patients with heart failure and identify predictors of uptake.MethodsAfrican American patients with heart failure were recruited at Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta GA between Oc...
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Luhui Cai, Yanli Liang, Huanjian Huang, Xia Zhou, Jinou ZhengAbstractBackgroundAnti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis showing severe neuropsychiatric symptoms is the most common type of autoimmune encephalitis. However, the corresponding standard clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) presents normal or atypical in the majority of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Here, this study aimed to investigate the alterations in brain functional activity in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and whether these a...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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