The DNA damage response goes viral: A way in for new cancer treatments

Researchers show how DNA repair proteins sound the alarm to threats, pointing to a novel cancer therapy.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news

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Conclusion: Our results indicate that SirT1 regulates apoptosis and radiation sensitization in lung cancer cell lines A549 and H460 via the SirT1/NF- κB/Smac pathway.Cell Physiol Biochem 2018;48:304 –316
Source: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Poly-ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a critical enzyme involved in DNA repair.   The inhibition of PARP has emerged as a promising strategy in cancer therapy.  Numerous PARP inhibitors have been developed and advanced into clinical trials, both for use as single agents in specific patient populations and as combination therapies with various chemotherapeutics.  The inductio n of strand break damage to DNA, as has been demonstrated in cancer cells treated with O2-arylated diazeniumdiolates, coupled with inhibition of DNA repair by PARP inhibitors, represents a novel rationale for effective combination the...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Yanxin Lu, Yang Liu, Ying Pang, Karel Pacak, Chunzhang YangAbstractDNA repair pathways are evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms that maintain the integrity of genomic DNA. In cancer therapies, the integrity and activity of DNA repair pathways predict therapy resistance and disease outcome. Members of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family initiate and organize the biologic process of DNA repair, which counteracts many types of chemotherapies. Since the first development in approximately 3 decades ago, PARP inhib...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Abstract The eukaryotic DNA replication machinery is conserved from yeast to humans and requires the actions of multiple DNA polymerases. In addition to replicative DNA polymerases for duplication of the leading and lagging DNA strands, another group of specialized polymerases is required for DNA repair and/or translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). We emphasize here recent findings that accelerate our understanding of the structure and mechanisms of these remarkable enzymes. We also highlight growing evidence on the role of DNA polymerases in the origin of certain cancers, and paradoxically as emerging targets for cance...
Source: Current Opinion in Structural Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Struct Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Yanxin Lu, Yang Liu, Ying Pang, Karel Pacak, Chunzhang YangAbstractDNA repair pathways are evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms that maintain the integrity of genomic DNA. In cancer therapies, the integrity and activity of DNA repair pathways predict therapy resistance and disease outcome. Members of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family initiate and organize the biologic process of DNA repair, which counteracts many types of chemotherapies. Since the first development in approximately 3 decades ago, PARP inhib...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a DNA repair disorder associated with a high risk of cancer and bone marrow failure. Patients with FA may present with certain dysmorphic features, such as radial ray abnormalities, short stature, typical facies, bone marrow failure, or certain solid malignancies. Some patients may be recognized due to exquisite sensitivity after exposure to cancer therapy. FA is diagnosed by increased chromosomal breakage after exposure to clastogenic agents. It follows autosomal recessive and X-linked inheritance depending on the underlying genomic alterations. Recognizing patients with FA is important for therapeu...
Source: Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we investigate mitochondrial energetics and mtDNA methylation in senescent cells, and evaluate the potential of humanin and MOTS-c as novel senolytics or SASP modulators that can alleviate symptoms of frailty and extend health span by targeting mitochondrial bioenergetics. Exercise versus the Hallmarks of Aging https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2018/06/exercise-versus-the-hallmarks-of-aging/ The paper I'll point out today walks through the ways in which exercise is known to beneficially affect the Hallmarks of Aging. The Hallmarks are a list of the significant causes of aging that I dis...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract WEE1 kinase regulates the G2-M cell-cycle checkpoint, a critical mechanism for DNA repair in cancer cells that can confer resistance to DNA-damaging agents. We previously reported a series of pyrazolopyrimidinones based on AZD1775, a known WEE1 inhibitor, as an initial investigation into the structural requirements for WEE1 inhibition. Our lead inhibitor demonstrated WEE1 inhibition in the same nanomolar range as AZD1775, and potentiated the effects of cisplatin in medulloblastoma cells, but had reduced single-agent cytotoxicity. These results prompted the development of a more comprehensive series of WEE...
Source: ChemMedChem - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: ChemMedChem Source Type: research
ConclusionsClinicopathological features and survival outcomes in the PBM-treated patients were similar to previously published data for conventional treatments in patients with advanced OSCC. In this study, prophylactic use of PBM therapy did not impact treatment outcomes of the primary cancer, recurrence or new primary tumors, or survival in advanced OSCC patients.
Source: Supportive Care in Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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