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The DNA damage response goes viral: A way in for new cancer treatments

Researchers show how DNA repair proteins sound the alarm to threats, pointing to a novel cancer therapy.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news

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CONCLUSION: NDRG1 is an important modulator linking DNA damage response and hypoxia-related cellular stress response during the development of drug resistance to cisplatin/CMNa in lung cancer. Targeting both NDRG1 and ERCC1 may be a viable strategy for overcoming drug resistance in cancer therapy, and has significant clinical implications. PMID: 29768183 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Int J Biochem Cell Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Buoninfante OA, Pilzecker B, Aslam MA, Zavrakidis I, van der Wiel R, van de Ven M, van den Berk PCM, Jacobs H Abstract DNA damage tolerance (DDT) enables replication to continue in the presence of a damaged template and constitutes a key step in DNA interstrand crosslink repair. In this way DDT minimizes replication stress inflicted by a wide range of endogenous and exogenous agents, and provides a critical first line defense against alkylating and platinating chemotherapeutics. Effective DDT strongly depends on damage-induced, site-specific PCNA-ubiquitination at Lysine (K) 164 by the E2/E3 complex (RAD6/...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Abstract The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1/Mule/ARF-BP1 plays an important role in diverse biological processes including DNA damage repair and apoptosis. Our previous study has shown that in response to DNA damage HUWE1 was downregulated in CUL4B-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation, and CUL4B-mediated regulation of HUWE1 is important for cell survival upon DNA damage. CUL4B is a core component of the CUL4B Ring ligase complexes containing ROC1, DDB1 and a DDB1-Cullin Associated Factors (DCAFs), the latter of which are DDB1-binding WD40 adaptors critical for substrate recognition and recruit...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
In this study, eight new Torin2 analogs were designed and synthesized through multistep synthesis. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR and mass analysis. The newly synthesized analogs were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity via CellTiter-Glo® assay. Additionally, compounds 13 and 14 also showed significant inhibition for ATR and mTOR substrates, i.e., p-Chk1 Ser 317 and p70 S6K Thr 389, respectively. Compounds 13 and 14 displayed promising anti-cancer activity with HCT-116 cell lines in the preliminary study. Further, a comparative model of ATR kinase was generated using the SWISS-MODEL server...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract The DNA damage response (DDR) is a series of pathways and processes required to repair lesions to DNA. These pathways range from repairing strand breaks to the double helix, damaged bases formed after oxidation or deamination, inaccurate DNA replication resulting in mispaired base alignment, intrastrand crosslinks that trigger cell death, and a plethora of other genomic insults. The DDR is believed to be a critical component of radio and chemoresistance in many cancers as well, with the tumor's ability to repair therapy induced damage being an important tool used to survive traditional chemotherapeutic ag...
Source: DNA Repair - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: DNA Repair (Amst) Source Type: research
Abstract RNAi, post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, could be considered as one of the most important breakthroughs and rapidly growing fields in science. Researchers are trying to use this discovery in the treatment of various diseases and cancer is one of them. Multiple treatment procedures for treatments-resistance cancers remain as unsolvable problem yet. The current review summarizes both transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms, and highlights mechanisms leading to drug-resistance such as, drug efflux, drug inactivation, drug target alteration, DNA damages repair, and the e...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source:Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Yanxin Lu, Yang Liu, Ying Pang, Karel Pacak, Chunzhang Yang DNA repair pathways are evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms that maintain the integrity of genomic DNA. In cancer therapies, the integrity and activity of DNA repair pathways predict therapy resistance and disease outcome. Members of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family initiate and organize the biologic process of DNA repair, which counteracts many types of chemotherapies. Since the first development in approximately 3 decades ago, PARP inhibitor...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Synthetic lethality is an efficient mechanism-based approach to selectively target DNA repair defects. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) deficiency is frequently found in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), making this DNA repair protein an attractive target for exploiting synthetic lethal approaches in the disease. Using unbiased proteomic and metabolic high-throughput profiling on a unique in-house–generated isogenic model of ERCC1 deficiency, we found marked metabolic rewiring of ERCC1-deficient populations, including decreased levels of the metabolite NAD+ and reduced expression of the r...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we did not observe significant age-dependent upregulation of the prominent SASP cytokine Il6 in any tissue, although an upward trend was observed that was consistent in magnitude with previous observations in the heart and kidney. This modest age-related upward trend could be explained by a previous report which demonstrated that senescent cell-secreted IL-6 acts in an autocrine manner, reinforcing the senescent state, rather than inducing senescence or promoting dysfunction in neighboring cells. The decreased expression of Il6 with age we observed in the hypothalamus could be indicative of a lack or ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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