Researchers 'a step closer' to universal flu vaccine

Conclusion These studies have developed two different flu vaccines that could potentially offer broader protection against a variety of flu strains than current vaccines. As yet, this research has only been conducted in animals, with one study showing an effect against different flu strains in mice and monkeys, and the other showing an effect in mice and ferrets. As monkeys are more similar to humans than mice or ferrets, the results from these experiments are likely to be the most representative of what would happen in humans. While the results are encouraging, it is likely that additional lab and animal research on both vaccines will be undertaken to ensure the vaccine's safety and effectiveness before they reach testing on humans. The results suggest that while the vaccines may provide broad protection, they still may not be able to protect against all flu viruses. As there are many different flu strains and the flu virus is constantly changing, different flu vaccines are needed every flu season. Research like this aims to get us close to a universal flu vaccine that would be active against all – or at least most – strains. While the vaccines tested in these studies have not yet proven to be effective in humans, it seems likely that this type of research could eventually lead to better flu vaccines.  Links To The Headlines Universal flu vaccine comes closer, scientists say. BBC News, August 24 2015 Universal flu vaccine a step closer as scientists cr...
Source: NHS News Feed - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Medical practice Medication Heart/lungs Swine flu Source Type: news

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. They have also been implicated in the causation of deadly pandemics in recent history. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this first part of a two-part review, we describe the structure of zoonotic influenza viruses, the relationship between mutation and pandemic capacity, pathogenesis of i...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, we rescued the H1N1 wild-type (WT) classical swine influenza virus (A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2011 (H1N1)) and H1N1 PA-X deficient virus containing mutations at the frameshift motif, and compared their replication properties and pathogenicity of swine influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that the expression of PA-X inhibits virus replication and polymerase activity in cultured cells and decreases virulence in mouse models. Therefore, our study demonstrates that PA-X protein acts as a negative virulence regulator for classical H1N1 swine influenza virus and decreases virulence by inhibiting viral ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
AbstractIn recent years multiple novel influenza A strains have emerged in humans. We reviewed publically available data to summarise epidemiological characteristics of distinct avian influenza viruses known to cause human infection and describe changes over time. Most recently identified zoonotic strains have emerged in China (H7N9, H5N6, H10N8) – these strains have occurred mostly in association with visiting a live bird market. Most zoonotic AIVs and swine influenza variants typically cause mild infections in humans however severe illness and fatalities are associated with zoonotic H5N6, H10N8, H7N9 and H5N1 serot...
Source: Archives of Public Health - Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research
Conclusion This modelling study shows how the strains of influenza A – "bird flu" – circulating when a person is born give them lifelong protection against new subtypes with the same H protein groups. The researchers call this immune imprinting. This may help to explain the high severity and mortality rate seen among certain groups. For example, the massive flu pandemic of 1918 was an H1N1 strain. This had a very high fatality rate among young adults, which the researchers consider may have been because when they were born (between 1880 and 1900), H3 was the dominant strain. Therefore they had no prot...
Source: NHS News Feed - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Heart/lungs Medical practice Source Type: news
Host: Vincent Racaniello Guest: Peter Palese Vincent speaks with Peter Palese about his illustrious career in virology, from early work on neuraminidases to universal influenza virus vaccines.   Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Palese Laboratory Pig kidney neuraminidase (Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem) DNAse in cytoplasmic DNA virus (Virology) Inhibitor of influenza virus neuraminidase (Virology) Influenza neuraminidase defective mutants (Virology) Swine influenza virus of 1976 RNA pattern (Nature) 1977 influenza H1N1 similar to 1950s strains (Nature) H5N1 influenza: Facts, not fe...
Source: This Week in Virology - MP3 Edition - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: podcasts
Abstract: History provides us several illustrations where epidemic outbreaks have led to biological disasters. Accidental or deliberate release of harmful micro-organisms can also lead to biological disasters. With the advent of bio-terrorism, there is a growing realisation that biological agents can also be used as weapons of mass destruction. The spread of Spanish Influenza of 1917-18, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Swine Flu (H1N1), Avian Influenza (H5N1), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), dengue, chikunguniya, Ebola o...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Type: Invited Presentation Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Jidang Chen, Jun Ma, Sarah K. White, Zhenpeng Cao, Yun Zhen, Shuyi He, Wanjun Zhu, Changwen Ke, Yongbiao Zhang, Shuo Su, Guihong Zhang Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinaria...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
A universal flu vaccine -- one that provides immunity against every strain of the influenza virus for multiple years -- is the holy grail of flu research. It would be a medical breakthrough on the order of penicillin, with the potential to save hundreds of thousands of lives every year. And scientists just got one crucial step closer to making it a reality. Two separate groups of scientists published papers this week demonstrating that a new type of flu vaccine can provide protection against multiple strains of the disease, rather than just one. Though a truly universal flu vaccine that could be given to humans remain...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
Abstract Through antigenic drift and shift, influenza (flu) viral infections continue to be an annual cause of morbidity in healthy populations and mortality among the elderly and at risk patients. The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses like H5N1 and H7N9 and the rapid spread of the swine origin H1N1 influenza virus in 2009 demonstrate the continued need for effective influenza therapeutics. While several neuraminidase inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of influenza virus infections, these have shown a limited start-to-treat window and resistant variants have shown up in the popul...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Influenza virus neuramindase (NA) protein is a surface protein that plays an essential role in virus replication. Drugs and antibodies that block NA function can reduce both the symptoms and the length of illness; however, variants of influenza virus are resistant to NA inhibitors. The neuramindase 1 (N1) subtype of NA is important because it is found in the two pandemic H1N1 influenza virus strains (1918 Spanish flu and 2009 swine flu) and the H5N1 avian influenza virus. Anti-neuramindase antibody CD6 is a novel antibody that spans a conserved 30 amino acid epitope across the lateral face of a neuramindase (NA) dimer. The...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
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