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Nimodipine in otolaryngology: from past evidence to clinical perspectives.

Nimodipine in otolaryngology: from past evidence to clinical perspectives. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2015 Jun;35(3):135-45 Authors: Monzani D, Genovese E, Pini LA, DI Berardino F, Alicandri Ciufelli M, Galeazzi GM, Presutti L Abstract As L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) control Ca(2+) influx and depolarisation of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle, they represent a specific therapeutic target for calcium channel blockers (CCBs), which are approved and widely used to treat hypertension, myocardial ischaemia and arrhythmias. L-type currents also play a role in calcium entry in the sensory cells of the inner ear. In hair cells of both cochlea and labyrinth, calcium cytoplasmic influx is the first physiological process that activates complex intracellular enzymatic reactions resulting in neurotransmitter release. Excessive calcium ion entry into sensory cells, as a consequence of L-VGCCs malfunction is responsible for over-activation of phospholipase A2 and C, protein kinase II and C, nitric oxide synthase and both endonucleases and depolymerases, which can cause membrane damage and cellular death if the cytoplasmic buffering capacity is overcome. Nimodipine, a highly lipophilic 1-4 dihydropyridine that easily crosses the brain-blood barrier, is generally used to reduce the severity of neurological deficits resulting from vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Moreover, due to its selective blocking activity on L-channel calcium c...
Source: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital Source Type: research

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