Interior life: UCLA doctors use the body's own microorganisms to fight disease

This may strike many people as distasteful, but human stool now is used as a medical therapy against at least one dangerous infection. It is happening at UCLA and at a small number of other major medical centers, where processed stool from healthy donors is being introduced into the gastrointestinal tracts of patients with Clostridium difficile, or C. diff. The infection is most commonly acquired in the hospital, causing diarrhea, intestinal pain and cramps, fever and potentially worse — 14,000 people die from C. diff in the U.S. each year. While the cure may sound worse than the disease, the therapy, known as fecal microbial transplant (FMT), has been shown to be highly effective; by infusing the patient via colonoscopy with normal gut bacteria, the spectrum of intestinal microbes is dramatically altered, essentially overwhelming and suppressing the pathogen. In 2013, the New England Journal of Medicine published results from a randomized, controlled trial comparing FMT with vancomycin, the standard treatment for patients with recurrent C. diff. The study was halted after an interim analysis found FMT to be substantially more beneficial.         Only now are scientists beginning to appreciate the extent to which the 100-trillion (give or take) bacteria and other microbes that reside within our bodies keep us healthy, contribute to disease or, as in the case of FMT, can potentially be manipulated to cure what ails us. At UCLA alone, rec...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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This study aimed to determine the oral health knowledge (OHK) of Hispanic adults in Iowa to identify potential gaps in knowledge. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a convenience sample of self-identifying Hispanic adults. Data pertaining to oral health literacy and demographic, cultural, and dental characteristics were collected. OHK was assessed with the Conceptual Measure of Oral Health Knowledge, and it was categorized as low or high. Bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression models were conducted to identify the variables related to OHK (P
Source: Journal of the American Dental Association - Category: Dentistry Tags: J Am Dent Assoc Source Type: research
Certain fats found in seafood may help keep you healthy for years to come, according to a new study published in the BMJ. Higher blood levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids — healthy fats found in foods such as fish, nuts, leafy greens and vegetable and flaxseed oils — were associated with a greater chance of healthy aging, according to the observational research. Omega-3s found in seafood seemed to have the strongest effect, says study co-author Heidi Lai, a postdoctoral fellow at Tufts’ Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy. “There had been studies that looked at the relationship...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Diet/Nutrition healthytime Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global HealthAuthor(s): Rahul Naresh Wasnik, Srujitha Marupuru, Zabiuddin Ahad Mohammed, Gabriel Sunil Rodrigues, Sonal SekharAbstractBackground/objectivesDiabetic foot infections (DFI) are common complications among diabetics. These wounds can cause discomfort and often become infected. In India, currently there is a paucity of data on patient adherence towards antibiotic use in DFIs. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, antimicrobial therapy and its adherence in DFI patients.MethodA prospective...
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Authors: Wani TH, Surendran S, Mishra VS, Chaturvedi J, Chowdhury G, Chakrabarty A Abstract Sepantronium bromide (YM155), originally developed against the anti-apoptotic protein survivin, performed exceptionally well in pre-clinical and phase I clinical trials. However, in phase II trials of several cancer types including breast cancer it performed poorly. Additionally, no definitive correlation between survivin level and response to therapy was found. In an attempt to understand the true reason of the late-stage failure of this promising drug, we developed YM155-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and characte...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Milevskiy MJG, Sandhu GK, Wronski A, Korbie D, Brewster BL, Shewan A, Edwards SL, French JD, Brown MA Abstract Depletion of BRCA1 protein in mouse mammary glands results in defects in lactational development and increased susceptibility to mammary cancer. Extensive work has focussed on the role of BRCA1 in the normal breast and in the development of breast cancer, the cell of origin for BRCA1 tumours and the protein-coding genes altered in BRCA1 deficient cells. However, the role of non-coding RNAs in BRCA1-deficient cells is poorly understood. To evaluate miRNA expression in BRCA1 deficient mammary cells,...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Koobotse M, Holly J, Perks C Abstract Within populations carrying the same genetic predisposition, the penetrance of BRCA1 mutations has increased over time. Although linked to changes in lifestyle factors associated with energy metabolism, these observations cannot be explained by the established role of BRCA1 in DNA repair alone. We manipulated BRCA1 expression using tetracycline in the UBR60-bcl2 cell line (which has an inducible, tetracycline-regulated BRCA1 expression) and siRNA in oestrogen receptor(ER)-positive MCF7 and T47D breast cancer cells. Cellular responses to BRCA1 silencing and IGF-I action...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Bahmad HF, Mouhieddine TH, Chalhoub RM, Assi S, Araji T, Chamaa F, Itani MM, Nokkari A, Kobeissy F, Daoud G, Abou-Kheir W Abstract Nervous system tumors represent some of the highly aggressive cancers in both children and adults, particularly neuroblastoma and glioblastoma. Many studies focused on the pathogenic role of the Akt pathway and the mechanistic target of Rapamycin (mTOR) complex in mediating the progression of various types of cancer, which designates the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway as a master regulator for cancer. Current studies are also elucidating the mechanisms of cancer stem cells (CSCs) i...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Conclusion: The "Clo-Baltimore regimen" is safe and feasible and provides good survivals for patients with myeloid malignancies and haplo-donors. Methods: Here, we report a variant of the Baltimore regimen, where 1) fludarabine was replaced by clofarabine, 2) bone marrow was replaced by peripheral blood stem cells, and 3) tacrolimus was replaced by cyclosporine, in a "Clo-Baltimore regimen". PMID: 30323896 [PubMed]
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Muramatsu M, Akakura S, Gao L, Peresie J, Balderman B, Gelman IH Abstract SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12 (SSeCKS) controls metastasis-associated PKC and Src signaling through direct scaffolding activity. SSeCKS is downregulated in the metastases of many human cancer types, and its forced re-expression suppresses the metastatic behavior of prostate cancer cells. SSeCKS is also downregulated in breast and prostate cancer stroma, and SSeCKS-null mice (KO) are metastasis-prone, suggesting a role in suppressing formation of the pre-metastatic niche. Here, we show that lung colonization and metastasis formation by B16F10 ...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Authors: Wong OK, Tran TT, Ho WH, Casas MG, Au M, Bateman M, Lindquist KC, Rajpal A, Shelton DL, Strop P, Liu SH Abstract Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a clinically validated target and often overexpressed in some solid tumors. Both EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and ligand-blocking antibodies have been approved for treatment of NSCLC, head and neck cancers and colorectal cancers. However, clinical response is limited and often accompanied by significant toxicities due to normal tissue expression. To improve the effectiveness of targeting EGFR while minimizing the toxicities on normal tissues, we deve...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
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