Interior life: UCLA doctors use the body's own microorganisms to fight disease

This may strike many people as distasteful, but human stool now is used as a medical therapy against at least one dangerous infection. It is happening at UCLA and at a small number of other major medical centers, where processed stool from healthy donors is being introduced into the gastrointestinal tracts of patients with Clostridium difficile, or C. diff. The infection is most commonly acquired in the hospital, causing diarrhea, intestinal pain and cramps, fever and potentially worse — 14,000 people die from C. diff in the U.S. each year. While the cure may sound worse than the disease, the therapy, known as fecal microbial transplant (FMT), has been shown to be highly effective; by infusing the patient via colonoscopy with normal gut bacteria, the spectrum of intestinal microbes is dramatically altered, essentially overwhelming and suppressing the pathogen. In 2013, the New England Journal of Medicine published results from a randomized, controlled trial comparing FMT with vancomycin, the standard treatment for patients with recurrent C. diff. The study was halted after an interim analysis found FMT to be substantially more beneficial.         Only now are scientists beginning to appreciate the extent to which the 100-trillion (give or take) bacteria and other microbes that reside within our bodies keep us healthy, contribute to disease or, as in the case of FMT, can potentially be manipulated to cure what ails us. At UCLA alone, rec...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Journal of Molecular Graphics and ModellingAuthor(s): Pourseyed Aghaei Fatematossadat, Mahnaz Mohammadi, S. Ehsan RoozmehAbstractIn this paper, we study magnetic and structural properties of silver and gold-coated iron nanoparticle as novel drug delivery systems for the two commercially famous cancer treatment drugs, using the density functional theory (DFT) computations.Our calculations show that silver and gold-coated iron nanoparticle have magnetization and the magnetic moment of the Fe atom in the Fe@(Ag/Au)n core-shells saturated to a value of about 3 μB. Thus...
Source: Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our results indicate that LRP1 promotes the dedifferentiation of PASMC from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype thus suggesting its contribution to vascular remodeling in PH.
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
ConclusionOur study suggests a VDR-mediated metabolic cross-talk between gut and adipose tissue, which significantly contributes to systemic lipid homeostasis. These results have important implications for use of the intestinal VDR as a therapeutic target for obesity and associated disorders.
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
This study demonstrates that CCL2 is a key molecule for the development of metabolic and histological alterations in the liver of mice sensitive to the development of hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis, a finding with potential to identify new therapeutic targets in liver diseases.
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): Tsung-Ming Lee, Horng-Jyh Harn, Tzyy-Wen Chiou, Ming-Hsi Chuang, Chun-Hung Chen, Chi-Hsuan Chuang, Po-Cheng Lin, Shinn-Zong LinAbstractLeft ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertension has prognostic significance on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Recently, we have shown that n-butylidenephthalide (BP) improves human adipose-derived stem cell (hADSC) engraftment via attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This prompted us to investigate whether remote transplantation of BP-pretreated hADSCs confers attenuated LVH at an est...
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Shuo Tang, Ting Wang, Caoxing Huang, Chenhuan Lai, Yimin Fan, Qiang YongAbstractA highly branched arabinogalactan isolated from Larix principis-rupprechtii and subjected to sulfation derivatization to promote their antitumor bioactivity. Several structural features of the sulfated arabinogalactans (S-LAG) were investigated: molecular weight, monosaccharide constitution, and chemical structures. Spectral analysis indicated that sulfate groups were successfully introduced on arabinogalactan. Sulfated products showed different degrees of s...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: MitochondrionAuthor(s): Hamza El Hadi, Roberto Vettor, Marco RossatoAbstractCardiovascular disease is the leading cause of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. It is widely accepted that heart failure risk is increased in diabetic patients even after adjusting for coronary artery disease and hypertension. Mitochondria are the center of fatty acid (FA) and glucose metabolism and thus are likely to be impacted by impaired metabolism associated with diabetes. Although the cause of this increased heart failure risk is multifactorial, increasing evidence points toward...
Source: Mitochondrion - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
ConclusionsO-GlcNAcylation significantly modified STRA6 and RALDH1, suppressed RBP4 binding activity, and disrupted retinol signals in the kidney of diabetes.General significanceThis study first indicates that STRA6-retinol signals were directly disrupted by O-GlcNAcylation in diabetic kidney.
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: The Journal of Supercritical FluidsAuthor(s): Daniel Ribeiro Grijó, Danielle Lazarin Bidoia, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Ignacio Vieitez Osorio, Lúcio Cardozo-FilhoAbstractThe inhibitory effects of Cannabis flower extracts, obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) with and without modifier, on various human tumour cells and non-tumour cells were evaluated. Different techniques were used to optimize the polarity interaction between solute and solvent before extraction. An increase in the cannabinoid content of interest (CBD/THC) was evaluated by decarb...
Source: The Journal of Supercritical Fluids - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2019Source: European Polymer JournalAuthor(s): Qian Zou, Fangli Hou, Hong Wang, Yonggui Liao, Qin Wang, Yajiang YangAbstractMultifunctional alginate microspheres encapsulated with in situ-formed bismuth sulfide nanoparticles (denoted as Bi2S3@BCA) were developed in this work. In comparison with conventional hybrid polymer microspheres usually involved in complicate preparation process, Bi2S3@BCA microspheres can be easily one-step prepared using a droplet-based microfluidic technique with alginate as a soft template and microspheric matrix. As-prepared Bi2S3@BCA microspheres has ...
Source: European Polymer Journal - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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