Nicotine administration in adolescence reprograms the subsequent response to nicotine treatment and withdrawal in adulthood: Sex-selective effects on cerebrocortical serotonergic function.

Nicotine administration in adolescence reprograms the subsequent response to nicotine treatment and withdrawal in adulthood: Sex-selective effects on cerebrocortical serotonergic function. Brain Res Bull. 2014 Jan 30; Authors: Slotkin TA, Card J, Seidler FJ Abstract Nicotine exposure in adolescence produces lasting changes in subsequent behavioral responses to addictive agents. We gave nicotine to adolescent rats (postnatal days PN30-47), simulating plasma levels in smokers, and then examined the subsequent effects of nicotine given again in adulthood (PN90-107), focusing on cerebrocortical serotonin levels and utilization (turnover) as an index of presynaptic activity of circuits involved in emotional state. Our evaluations encompassed responses during the period of adult nicotine treatment (PN105) and withdrawal (PN110, PN120, PN130), as well as long-term changes (PN180). In males, prior exposure to nicotine in adolescence greatly augmented the increase in serotonin turnover evoked by nicotine given in adulthood, an interaction that was further exacerbated during withdrawal. The effect was sufficiently large that it led to significant depletion of serotonin stores, an effect that was not seen with nicotine given alone in either adolescence or adulthood. In females, adolescent nicotine exposure blunted or delayed the spike in serotonin turnover evoked by withdrawal from adult nicotine treatment, a totally different effect from the interaction seen in males. ...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

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Abstract Substance addiction is a chronic, relapsing mental disorder Characterized by compulsive drug seeking, and loss of control over drug intake and relapse after prolonged abstinence. Genetics has been shown to contribute towards an individual's vulnerability to addiction. Acetylecholine (ACh), a cholinergic neurotransmitter hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), is an essential neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in central and peripheral nervous system and has regulatory influence on numerous neuronal functions including addiction. The present study was carried out to investigate the role of acetylcholin...
Source: Chemico-Biological Interactions - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Chem Biol Interact Source Type: research
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of psychiatric medication among undergraduate students of health sciences from a public university in Brasil. Another objective was to determine the frequency of nuclear morphological abnormalities in the buccal mucosa of students using psychiatric drugs. A cross-sectional study based on a Web survey was carried out with 375 health sciences undergraduate students from schools of Pharmacy, Physical Education, Nutrition, and Medicine. Additionally, spontaneous genetic damages in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa of 41 individuals by counting micronuc...
Source: Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
This is a must-read book for child and adolescent psychiatrists interested in understanding how the evolution of information technology is affecting our minds, our relationships, and our culture. It is highly insightful, thoughtful, well written, and extremely informative. The Distracted Mind raises profound questions about why we ’ve become so addicted to these shiny screens that dominate our lives, and it provides useful strategies for grappling with the deleterious effects of our high-tech world.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Book forum Source Type: research
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive stimulant, and METH exposure can induce irreversible neuronal damage and cause neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. The ever-increasing levels of METH abuse worldwide have necessitated the identification of effective intervention strategies to protect the brain against METH-induced neurotoxicity. The protective effects of molecular hydrogen on oxidative stress and related neurodegenerative diseases have been recently elucidated. Herein, we investigated whether treatment with molecular hydrogen ameliorated the METH-induced neurotoxicity and spatial learning and memory impair...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process in which cytoplasmic materials are degraded and recycled as energy sources when nutrient supplies are lacking. Established tumor cells require autophagy for cell growth and tumor promotion. In particular, the survival of pancreatic tumor cells appears to be strongly dependent on autophagy, referred to as autophagy addiction. This dependency of pancreatic tumor cells on autophagy may be a candidate target for pancreatic tumor therapy. EI24 (etoposide-induced gene 2.4-kb; PIG8, p53-induced gene 8) acts as a tumor suppressor, inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in bre...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
a Zweig Currently about 2.71 billion humans use a smartphone worldwide. Although smartphone technology has brought many advances, a growing number of scientists discuss potential detrimental effects due to excessive smartphone use. Of importance, the likely culprit to understand over-usage is not the smartphone itself, but the excessive use of applications installed on smartphones. As the current business model of many app-developers foresees an exchange of personal data for allowance to use an app, it is not surprising that many design elements can be found in social media apps and Freemium games prolonging app usage....
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Discussions about your goals can also act as a starting point for you and your spouse to work from. It can break down the monumental task of repairing your marriage into bite-size pieces. Or it can give you the information needed to decide to part ways. 4. Both of You Need to Be Willing to Change. Both partners in an unhappy marriage need to be willing to say, “Yes, you can save an unhappy marriage.” You both need to want to do the hard work necessary to repair the relationship. And make no mistake — it can be emotional, hard work. After all, it feels vulnerable to own up to your own faults and insecuriti...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Marriage and Divorce Publishers Relationships YourTango Source Type: blogs
Conditions:   Post Traumatic Stress Disorder;   Depression Interventions:   Behavioral: Traumatic memory reactivation;   Behavioral: Neutral memory reactivation Sponsor:   Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Authors: Muruganandam P, Shukla L, Sharma P, Kandasamy A, Chand P, Murthy P Abstract BACKGROUND: Opioid substitution therapy is an evidence-based treatment for opioid dependence syndrome. Retention in treatment is a crucial mediator of treatment success. Our study aims to examine factors associated with early treatment non-compliance among patients who are initiated on office-based Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment (BMT). METHOD: This is a prospective observational study conducted among 89 subjects who were initiated on BMT and were followed up to 6 weeks. At baseline, we evaluated subjects using: Mini Intern...
Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Asian J Psychiatr Source Type: research
New research carries a warning for both parents and doctors: prescription meds in the home are fueling the addiction crisis among kids and teens.
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news
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