A Review on Carotid Ultrasound Atherosclerotic Tissue Characterization and Stroke Risk Stratification in Machine Learning Framework

Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (including stroke and heart attack) are identified as the leading cause of death in today’s world. However, very little is understood about the arterial mechanics of plaque buildup, arterial fibrous cap rupture, and the role of abnormalities of the vasa vasorum. Recently, ultrasonic echogenicity characteristics and morphological characterization of carotid plaque types have been shown to have clinical utility in classification of stroke risks. Furthermore, this characterization supports aggressive and intensive medical therapy as well as procedures, including endarterectomy and stenting. This is the first state-of-the-art review to provide a comprehensive understanding of the field of ultrasonic vascular morphology tissue characterization. This paper presents fundamental and advanced ultrasonic tissue characterization and feature extraction methods for analyzing plaque. Additionally, the paper shows how the risk stratification is achieved using machine learning paradigms. More advanced methods need to be developed which can segment the carotid artery walls into multiple regions such as the bulb region and areas both proximal and distal to the bulb. Furthermore, multimodality imaging is needed for validation of such advanced methods for stroke and cardiovascular risk stratification.
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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Background and Aims: A plaque may rupture with high risk of subsequent thrombus mediated acute clinical events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. The aim of this study was to generate a hamster model of abdominal aorta atherothrombotic stenosis and the subsequent investigating the feasibility of sono- photomechanic combination thrombolytic therapy accompanied by simultaneously PLGA- based encapsulated tPA nanoparticles and microbubbles administration in this model.
Source: Atherosclerosis - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Posters 26 - 29 May, 2019 Source Type: research
Background and Aims: A plaque may rupture with high risk of subsequent thrombus mediated acute clinical events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Catheter-based lasers have been extensively studied as an effective method to treat thrombosis. The aim of this study was to generate a rabbit model of femoral artery thromboembolism occlusion and the subsequent investigating the feasibility of Q-switched Nd: YAG laser thrombolytic therapy accompanied by simultaneously intravenous streptokinase and PESDA microbubbles administration in this model.
Source: Atherosclerosis - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Posters 26 - 29 May, 2019 Source Type: research
This article serves as a brief overview to share how B-mode ultrasound imaging of the carotid artery is used in research studies to examine grayscale features of carotid plaques that are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and adverse events such as transient ischemic attack (TIA), stroke, and myocardial infarction. Grayscale features that are associated with unstable plaques (plaques at highest risk for rupture and sequela for CVD events) are low grayscale median value,1-3 black areas near the lumen surface of the plaque, and the presence of discrete white areas (DWAs) within the plaque (see Figure  1).
Source: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: American Society of Echocardiography News Source Type: research
This study aimed to compare outcomes in unselected patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation via transradial versus transfemoral access and standard versus ultrasound-guided arterial access. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective, randomised (radial vs. femoral and standard vs. ultrasound), 2x2 factorial trial of 1,388 patients undergoing coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary outcome was a composite of ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage strategY) major bleeding, MACE (death, stroke, myocardial infarction or urgent target lesion revascularisation) and v...
Source: EuroIntervention - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Tags: EuroIntervention Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In community-dwelling Japanese men, anthropometric obesity indices, BMI in particular, were more strongly associated with carotid atherosclerosis than CT-based obesity indices. The association of general obesity with carotid atherosclerosis was strong and adding CT-based obesity measure did not considerably influence in the association. PMID: 31092764 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis - Category: Cardiology Tags: J Atheroscler Thromb Source Type: research
Authors: Mancusi C, Losi MA, Izzo R, Gerdts E, Canciello G, Arnone MI, Trimarco B, de Simone G, De Luca N Abstract OBJECTIVES: Increased arterial stiffness is associated with advanced arteriosclerosis, abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry and function. Whether increased arterial stiffness is associated with incident cardiovascular (CV) event (MACE), independent of other markers of target organ damage needs to be clarified. METHODS: We selected hypertensive participants of the Campania Salute Network free of prevalent CV disease, with available echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound, ejection fraction ≥50%,...
Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research
Yolanda Benito1, Pablo Martinez-Legazpi1*, Lorenzo Rossini2, Candelas Pérez del Villar1, Raquel Yotti1, Yolanda Martín Peinador3, Daniel Rodríguez-Pérez4, M. Mar Desco4, Constancio Medrano1, Jose Carlos Antoranz4, Francisco Fernández-Avilés1, Juan C. del Álamo2,5 and Javier Bermejo1 1Department of Cardiology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón and CIBERCV, Madrid, Spain 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Embolism associated with asymptomatic carotid stenosis shows circadian variation with highest rates 4–6 h before midday. This corresponds with peak circadian incidence of stroke and other vascular complications. These and ASED Study results show that monitoring frequency, duration, and time of day are important in ES detection. Introduction Transcranial Doppler (TCD) detected microembolism in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) may help stratify the risk of stroke and other arterial disease complications in persons with advanced (≥60%) asymptomatic carotid stenosis. If so, this techniqu...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In this small case series, hybrid revascularisation of carotid tandem lesions in symptomatic patients seems feasible and safe. Long-term data show a relatively high number of any adverse events. These surgical outcomes need to be offset against the natural course in patients with a symptomatic carotid tandem lesion. PMID: 30987818 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: PubMed: Eur J Vasc Endovasc ... - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg Source Type: research
This study demonstrated that the incidence of ischemic heart disease and death were three times higher among men with low birth weight compared to men with high birth weight (5). Epidemiological investigations of adults born at the time of the Dutch famine between 1944 and 1945 revealed an association between maternal starvation and a low infant birth weight with a high incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease in these adults (23). Furthermore, Painter et al. reported the incidence of early onset coronary heart disease among persons conceived during the Dutch famine (24). In that regard, Barker's findin...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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