Pitt study: Ancient proteins involved in DNA repair could shed light on tumor development

(University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences) By studying yeast used in beer- and bread-making, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine have uncovered the mechanism by which ancient proteins repair DNA damage and how their dysfunction could lead to the development of tumors. The findings, published online today in Nature Communications, could lead to new ways to tailor cancer therapies.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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I think it is entirely appropriate to greet the advent of senolytics with enthusiasm. These treatments are the first legitimate rejuvenation therapies to successfully target one of the root causes of aging, the accumulation of lingering senescent cells in old tissues. The first human trial data is approaching publication, but even before it arrives, the evidence to date strongly suggests that meaningful levels of rejuvenation can be achieved in old people at a very low cost. The first senolytic drugs (such as dasatinib and navitoclax) and plant extracts (such as fisetin and piperlongumine) cost very little, and remove only...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
AbstractComprehensive genomic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) helps patients, family members, and providers make informed choices about cancer screening, surgical and chemotherapeutic risk reduction, and genetically targeted cancer therapies. The increasing availability of multigene panel tests for clinical applications allows testing of well-defined high-risk genes, as well as moderate-risk genes, for which the penetrance and spectrum of cancer risk are less well characterized. Moderate-risk genes are defined as genes that, when altered by a pathogenic variant, confer a 2 to fivefold relative risk of cancer. Two such genes ...
Source: Familial Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
International Journal of Cancer,Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
Source: International Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Li J, Svilar D, McClellan S, Kim JH, Ahn EE, Vens C, Wilson DM, Sobol RW Abstract Numerous studies have shown that select DNA repair enzyme activities impact response and/or toxicity of genotoxins, suggesting a requirement for enzyme functional analyses to bolster precision medicine or prevention. To address this need, we developed a DNA Repair Molecular Beacon (DRMB) platform that rapidly measures DNA repair enzyme activity in real-time. The DRMB assay is applicable for discovery of DNA repair enzyme inhibitors, for the quantification of enzyme rates and is sufficiently sensitive to differentiate cellular...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
ndi A better understanding of mechanistic insights into genes and enzymes implicated in rare diseases provide a unique opportunity for orphan drug development. Advances made in identification of synthetic lethal relationships between rare disorder genes with oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have brought in new anticancer therapeutic opportunities. Additionally, the rapid development of small molecule inhibitors against enzymes that participate in DNA damage response and repair has been a successful strategy for targeted cancer therapeutics. Here, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of how many rare ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this study has been focused on genetically modified MSCs for use in RM with an emphasis on CTSs. We highlight the basic concept of genetic modifications and also discuss recent clinical studies aspects. Recently reviewed studies show that MSC therapy with assistant gene therapy can be used in cancer therapy, heart diseases, Fanconi anemia and several other diseases. PMID: 30155859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Abstract DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are a specific type of DNA lesion consisting of a protein covalently and irreversibly bound to DNA, which arise after exposure to physical and chemical crosslinking agents. DPCs can be bulky and thereby pose a barrier to DNA replication and transcription. The persistence of DPCs during S phase causes DNA replication stress and genome instability. The toxicity of DPCs is exploited in cancer therapy: many common chemotherapeutics kill cancer cells by inducing DPC formation. Recent work from several laboratories discovered a specialized repair pathway for DPCs, namely DPC proteo...
Source: DNA Repair - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: DNA Repair (Amst) Source Type: research
We present in vitro evidence that HDACi can enhance the radiosensitivity of human thyroid cancer cells.
Source: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Investig Drugs Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Cancer cells with low K-H expression may have exploitable BRCAness properties that greatly expands use of PARP inhibitors beyond BRCA mutations. Our results suggest that aberrant K-H alterations may have vital translational implications in cellular responses/survival to DNA damage, carcinogenesis and personalized medicine. PMID: 30108102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
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