Yale study identifies 'major player' in skin cancer genes

(Yale University) A multidisciplinary team at Yale, led by Yale Cancer Center members, has defined a subgroup of genetic mutations that are present in a significant number of melanoma skin cancer cases. Their findings shed light on an important mutation in this deadly disease, and may lead to more targeted anti-cancer therapies.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of GARP and Foxp3 in 19 human PTC tissues (including 10 cases with and 9 cases without lymph node metastasis) and 20 benign thyroid diseases (including 10 cases with nodular goiter and 10 cases with adenoma). Compared with benign thyroid diseases, we found a significant increase in the expression of GARP in PTC. Increased GARP expression in PTC was positively correlated with increased expression of Foxp3, which is very important for development of Tregs. But, there is no significant association of elevated expression of GARP with lymph node metasta...
Source: Endocrine Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
ConclusionThis cohort has demonstrated late ‐stage presentation of skin cancers, with substantial morbidity and mortality from potentially treatable cutaneous malignancies. This parallels other health conditions in Indigenous Australians and has highlighted the need for improved data collection of Indigenous status to better quantify the ep idemiology of skin cancer in this population. There is an imperative to improve skin cancer awareness in this population to allow earlier detection and management to ensure better outcomes.
Source: Australasian Radiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiation Oncology —Original Article Source Type: research
Lipid rafts regulate the lamellipodia formation of melanoma A375 cells via actin cytoskeleton-mediated recruitment of β1 and β3 integrin. Oncol Lett. 2018 Nov;16(5):6540-6546 Authors: Bi J, Wang R, Zeng X Abstract Lipid rafts, distinct liquid-ordered plasma membrane microdomains, have been shown to regulate tumor cell migration by internalizing and recycling cell-surface proteins. The present study reports that lipid rafts are a prerequisite for lamellipodia formation, which is the first step in the processes of tumor cell migration. The results from the wound-healing assay and immunostaining...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): O.S. Malyarenko, E.V. Zdobnova, A.S. Silchenko, M.I. Kusaykin, S.P. ErmakovaAbstractFucoidan from brown alga Fucus evanescens and its product of enzymatic hydrolysis have precisely established structure and possess significant biological activities.The aim of present study was to determine radiosensitizing activity of fucoidan from brown alga F. evanescens and its derivative in human melanoma, breast adenocarcinoma, and colorectal carcinoma cell lines and elucidate mechanism of their action.The fucoidan from F. evanescens and its deri...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Abstract Significant progress has been made in cancer immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-programmed death-ligand 1 signaling pathways. Tumors from patients showing sustained treatment response predominately demonstrate a T cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment prior to, or early on treatment. Not all tumors with this phenotype respond however and one mediator of immunosuppression in T cell-inflamed tumors is the tryptophan-kynurenine-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Trp-Kyn-AhR) pathway. Multiple mechanisms of immunosuppression may be mediated by this pathway includi...
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
AbstractMore than 3000 clinical trials are evaluating the clinical activity of the PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors as monotherapies and in combinations with other cancer therapies [1]. The PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors are remarkable for their clinical activities in shrinking tumors across a wide range of tumor types, in causing durable responses, and in their tolerability. These attributes position them as favorable agents in clinical combinations. Historically, approaches to cancer therapy combinations focused on agents with orthogonal activities to avoid shared resistance mechanisms and shared toxicities. Although CTLA-4/PD-1 c...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
In this study, the oncolytic efficacy of VG9 was evaluated. We examined in vitro replication and cytotoxicity, in vivo biodistribution, and antitumor effects in a B16 tumor model. The results revealed that VG9 replicated rapidly, but the cytotoxicity varied in different cell lines. Significant antitumor effects of VG9 were observed in a murine melanoma tumor model, and an antitumor cytotoxic T‑lymphocyte response induced by VG9 was also observed. The results indicated that the Chinese vaccinia strain VG9 holds promise in the construction of a recombinant vaccinia virus vector and as a potential therapeutic strategy in ca...
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
Abstract The field of cancer immunology stepped into the limelight this year when James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation. Among many exciting advances contributing to the coming of age of tumour immunology as a viable clinical specialty has been the ability to progress from the initial elucidation of tumour antigens, such as the melanoma antigen, MAGE-1, to high-throughput sequencing facilitating identification of T cell epitopes from diverse tumour neoantigens. This has resulted from the...
Source: Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis case series represents the first description of potential skeletal adverse effects related to immune checkpoint inhibitors. These findings are important for providers caring for patients who experience musculoskeletal symptoms and may merit additional evaluation.
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, targeting miRNAs through antisense oligonucleotides technology may suggest the way to enhance the action of BRAF-inhibitors.
Source: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics - Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research
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