Stroke in HIV-infected African Americans: a retrospective cohort study

Abstract The risk of having a first stroke is nearly twice as high among African Americans compared to Caucasians. HIV/AIDS is an independent risk factor for stroke. Our study aimed to report the risk factors and short-term clinical outcomes of African Americans with HIV infection and new-onset stroke admitted at the Johns Hopkins Hospitals (2000–2012). Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between potential predictors and odds of an unfavorable outcome, defined as a higher modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score on hospital discharge. African Americans comprised 105/125 (84 %) of HIV-infected new-onset stroke inpatients (median age 50 years; 69 % men; median CD4 140/mL; ischemic 77 %; 39 % taking highly active antiretroviral therapy). Vascular risk factors were common: hypertension (67 %), cigarette smoking (66 %), dyslipidemia (42 %), hepatitis C (48 %), intravenous drug abuse (32 %), and prior myocardial infarction (29 %). Prior aspirin and statin use were uncommon (18 %, 9 %). Unfavorable outcome (mRS score 4–6, n = 22 of 90 available records) was noted in 24 % of patients, including seven in-hospital deaths. On multivariate analyses, higher CD4 count on hospital admission was associated with a lower mRS (−0.2 mRS points per 1 unit increase in CD4, 95 % CI (−0.3, 0), p = 0.03). Intracerebral hemorrhage was also asso...
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Authors: Atzema CL, Jackevicius CA, Chong A, Dorian P, Ivers NM, Parkash R, Austin PC Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients with atrial fibrillation frequently seek emergency care. Rates of guideline-concordant oral anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention are suboptimal in the community. We assessed the association between prescribing of oral anticoagulants in the emergency department (relative to referral to a longitudinal care provider for treatment initiation) and long-term use of oral anticoagulants. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study performed at 15 hospitals in Ontario, Canada, involved patients aged 65...
Source: Canadian Medical Association Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: CMAJ Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the effect of WDL on lytic human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. We demonstrate a strong interference with HCMV replication as analyzed in multi-round replication settings. A more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms revealed that WDL acts at two distinct steps of the viral replication cycle. During immediate early (IE) times, we observe an inhibition of IE1/IE2 expression. Although WDL was reported to interfere with NF-κB signaling our results suggest the existence of additional mechanisms that impede viral IE expression. During later time points of infection, WDL induced a...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Diagnostic accuracy of troponin T measured ≥6h after symptom onset for ruling out myocardial infarction. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2019 Dec 09;:1-9 Authors: Khoshnood A, Erlandsson M, Isma N, Yndigegn T, Mokhtari A Abstract Objectives: Guidelines recommend a single high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) ≤14 ng/L measured ≥6 h after chest pain onset combined with a GRACE score
Source: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal - Category: Cardiology Tags: Scand Cardiovasc J Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The results of the study confirm the success rates of ankle fusions in the majority of cases. Well defined limitations and residual symptoms can be named on the basis of the available data. PMID: 31820431 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Unfallchirurgie - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Z Orthop Unfall Source Type: research
Conclusion: The results of this randomised controlled trial with assessment of blood pressure and same-day self-reports will provide patients a tool to understand the interplay between blood pressure and lifestyle applicable to primary health care. The self-management support system may be of importance for improved adherence to treatment and persistence to treatment recommendations. PMID: 31814476 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research
Authors: Emara M, Mohsen E, Shawky RM, El-Domany RA Abstract The relation between non-organ specific autoantibodies (NOSA) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been investigated within different communities resulting in different prevalence rates and patterns. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of some NOSA such as RF-IgG, ANA, ASMA, and LKM-1 in Egyptian patients with HCV group as compared with Egyptian healthy controls group. A total of 186 HCV positive serum samples in addition to 81 samples from healthy control were screened for the presence of some common autoantibodies (RF-IgG, A...
Source: Immunological Investigations - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunol Invest Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Qingting Wang, Wenhua Shi, Qianqian Zhang, Wei Feng, Jian Wang, Cui Zhai, Xin Yan, Manxiang LiAbstractAimsIt has been shown that up-regulation of E3 ubiquitin ligase seven-in-absentia-homolog 2 (Siah2) and activation of Hippo signaling pathway effector yes-associated protein (YAP) are involved in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, it is still unclear whether Siah2 activates YAP in MCT-induced PAH rat model.Main methodsIntraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (MCT) was used to induce PAH rat models. The right...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
We reported higher values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), White Blood Cell (WBC), Red Blood Cell (RBC) and lymphocytes for treated groups. Innate immune responses (Alternative complement activity (ACH50) in M2 and M3 group, total Immunoglobulin (Ig) and lysozyme in M3), mucosal immune parameters (ACH50, total Ig for M2 and M3 group and lysozyme in all treated groups) were enhanced. Activities of digestive enzymes (protease in all treated groups, amylase for 3 and 5%, while lipase only for 5%) and lower activity of liver ALT enzyme in individuals treated with high...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2020Source: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, Volume 57Author(s): XiaoJuan Ding, Zhao LvAbstractEye movement information provides an alternative way for patients with muscular and neurological disorders to communicate with other people or devices. Electrooculography (EOG) is an effective eye movement recording method that has been widely applied to design human–computer interaction systems. In this paper, we propose a simplified Chinese eye-writing system based on EOG (EsCew) by identifying the basic strokes of Chinese characters. Specifically, we first use a bandpass digital filter to...
Source: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
In this study, N-methylated peptide inhibitors F-N(Me)H-L, V-N(Me)F-R and R-N(Me)V-Y were synthesized against ACE, NEP and APN respectively, using their respective physiological substrates. F-N(Me)H-L inhibited ACE activity with an IC50 of 83 nmol/L, V-N(Me)F-R inhibited NEP activity with an IC50 of 1.173 μmol/L and R-N(Me)V-Y inhibited APN activity with an IC50 of 3.94 nmol/L respectively. Further, the anti-hypertensive effect of N-methylated peptides was evaluated using rat model of dexamethasone-induced hypertension. Individual peptides and their cocktail treatment were started from day 6 of the ...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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