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Why Were Dinosaurs So Big?

Why were dinosaurs so big?: originally appeared on Quora: The best answer to any question. Ask a question, get a great answer. Learn from experts and access insider knowledge. You can follow Quora on Twitter, Facebook, and Google+. Answer by Marc Srour, Invertebrate Paleontologist Image by MathKnight There is actually no uncontroversial explanation for the as-of-yet unparalleled size of dinosaurs. If you look at the distribution of large sizes in dinosaurs, one distinction becomes clear: the only dinos that were small (less than 1m) were carnivorous theropods. Except for the 70 cm Fruitadens Haagarorum, no herbivorous ornithischians were small. The evolution of teeth in ornithischian lineages proceeded along very similar lines independently, and each innovation was accompanied by a bump in body size. Teeth are merely the most fossilisable sections of the digestive system. If they changed, then the rest of the animals' physiology was also changing in such a way as to enable larger body sizes, from getting larger guts to becoming quadrupedal (the first ornithischians were small and bipedal). In turn, this leads to changing ecological opportunities, feeding on different plants, being able to eat much more at once, and thus beginning the cycle of ever-growing sizes. This would then enter into a coevolutionary back-and-forth with their theropodan predators, eventually resulting in the sauropods, tyrannosaurids, and the other giants. What were the ornithischians eating to suppor...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news

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Endocrine Practice, Ahead of Print.
Source: Endocrine Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
We aimed to determine the long-term effects of Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) on remnants in the cavernous sinus (CS) after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for acromegaly and to identify its possible adverse effects.
Source: World Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
Funding Opportunity PA-18-052 from the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages R21 applications that propose to conduct secondary analyses of existing data sets relevant to diabetes and selected endocrine and metabolic diseases including thyroid, parathyroid and Cushings diseases and acromegaly; and genetic metabolic disease including cystic fibrosis, lysosomal storage diseases, and disorders of the urea cycle, amino acid metabolism and metal transport where the focus is on peripheral metabolism or organ function; obesity, liver diseases, alimentary GI tract diseases and ...
Source: NIH Funding Opportunities (Notices, PA, RFA) - Category: Research Source Type: funding
Conclusion: Reduction in growth hormone levels and insulin-like growth factor type 1 can decrease the LVM and LVMI, which directly or indirectly contributes to the improvement in diastolic as well as systolic function and probably mortality.
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Subhash Yadav, Eesh BhatiaNeurology India 2017 65(6):1223-1224
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Antonio Ribeiro-Oliveira, Márta Korbonits, Claudia M V FreireNeurology India 2017 65(6):1225-1226
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe results from these long-term placebo-controlled studies confirm the established safety profile of long-acting OCT, in particular low risk of cardiac, hepatic and renal toxicity in a high-risk population.
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusion Regarding operated cases of GH-producing pituitary adenoma, acromegaly clinical manifestations tended to be milder at diagnosis in later years of the decade, and acromegaly was diagnosed at lower IGF-1 levels and in smaller lesions. Further study is mandatory for the generalization of this trend.
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeThere is a paucity of epidemiological information on treatment and imaging of pituitary adenomas in Australia.MethodsAustralian data on pituitary surgery, hospital admissions for pituitary adenomas, and pituitary imaging on patients 15 years and over were obtained from administrative databases between 2000/2001 and 2014/2015. Changes over time and by age and sex were assessed.ResultsIn 2014/15 there were 37.7 pituitary procedures/million population, corresponding to a 35.4% (p 
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In conclusion, although cecal intubation during colonoscopy was successful in all participants, it required a longer time in patients with acromegaly. Our results underscore the importance of and certain technical difficulties involved in colonoscopy procedures in patients with acromegaly, especially in older patients. PMID: 29081443 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Endocrine Journal - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr J Source Type: research
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