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Why Were Dinosaurs So Big?

Why were dinosaurs so big?: originally appeared on Quora: The best answer to any question. Ask a question, get a great answer. Learn from experts and access insider knowledge. You can follow Quora on Twitter, Facebook, and Google+. Answer by Marc Srour, Invertebrate Paleontologist Image by MathKnight There is actually no uncontroversial explanation for the as-of-yet unparalleled size of dinosaurs. If you look at the distribution of large sizes in dinosaurs, one distinction becomes clear: the only dinos that were small (less than 1m) were carnivorous theropods. Except for the 70 cm Fruitadens Haagarorum, no herbivorous ornithischians were small. The evolution of teeth in ornithischian lineages proceeded along very similar lines independently, and each innovation was accompanied by a bump in body size. Teeth are merely the most fossilisable sections of the digestive system. If they changed, then the rest of the animals' physiology was also changing in such a way as to enable larger body sizes, from getting larger guts to becoming quadrupedal (the first ornithischians were small and bipedal). In turn, this leads to changing ecological opportunities, feeding on different plants, being able to eat much more at once, and thus beginning the cycle of ever-growing sizes. This would then enter into a coevolutionary back-and-forth with their theropodan predators, eventually resulting in the sauropods, tyrannosaurids, and the other giants. What were the ornithischians eating to suppor...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news

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AbstractA heterogeneous group of epithelial cystic tumors developed at the infundibulum and the third ventricle disconcerted pathologists at the dawn of the twentieth century. Very little was known at that time about the physiological role played by the pituitary gland, and there was almost complete ignorance regarding the function of the hypothalamus. Acromegaly, or enlargement of acral body parts, described in 1886 by Pierre Marie, was the only disease linked to primary hypertrophies of the pituitary gland, known as “pituitary strumas”. A growing number of young patients manifesting an unexplained combination...
Source: Pituitary - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Clinical Endocrinology, EarlyView.
Source: Clinical Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
KIP SULLIVAN Lawton Burns and Mark Pauly, economists at the Wharton School, just published an article that should be required reading for all policy makers and health services researchers. The article,  entitled “Transformation of the health care industry: Curb your enthusiasm,” appears in the latest edition of the Milbank Quarterly. Burns and Pauly undertook an enormous task and executed it well. They first sought to explain the assumptions underlying Managed Care (MC) 2.0 – the proposals promoted by the managed care movement in the wake of the HMO backlash of the late 1990s. Then they evaluat...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Giampaolo Trivellin, Laura C. Hernández-Ramírez, Jeremy Swan, Constantine A. Stratakis X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) is a recently described form of familial or sporadic pituitary gigantism characterized by very early onset GH and IGF-1 excess, accelerated growth velocity, gigantism and/or acromegaloid features. Germline or somatic microduplications of the Xq26.3 chromosomal region, invariably involving the GPR101 gene, constitute the genetic defect leading to X-LAG. G...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe technique presented herein effectively improved the quality of life of patients with acromegaly with different levels of disease activity, type, and treatment time.
Source: Pituitary - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the presence of glucose metabolism abnormalities and their impact on IGF-1 levels in patients with acromegaly. Ninety-three patients with acromegaly (n=93; 52 males/41 females) were included in this study. Patients were separated into three groups such as; normal glucose tolerance (n=23, 25%), prediabetes (n=38, 41%), and diabetes mellitus (n=32, 34%). Insulin resistance was calculated with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). HOMA-IR> 2.5 or ≤2.5 were defined as insulin resistant or noninsulin resistant groups, respectively. Groups were compared in terms of factors that may...
Source: Hormone and Metabolic Research - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Endocrine Care Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur data demonstrate a low prevalence of acromegaly in patients with OSAS. Until data from population-based studies is available we suggest restricting screening for acromegaly in OSAS to those patients who have additional clinical features of acromegaly.
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundTranssphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the cornerstone of acromegaly treatment, however there are no robust predictors of surgical outcome and remission can only be defined three months after surgery.PurposeTo analyze if biochemical, demographical, radiological, and immunohistochemical characteristics are predictors of surgical remission and investigate if immediate postoperative GH and IGF-I levels can help defining remission earlier.MethodsConsecutive acromegaly patients submitted to TSS between 2013-2016 were evaluated. Remission criteria was defined as normal IGF-I and GH
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Clinical Endocrinology, EarlyView.
Source: Clinical Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
Source: Notes from Dr. RW - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: cardiovascular endocrinology Source Type: blogs
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